Apicomplexans are obligate intracellular parasites that invade host cells by an active process leading to the formation of a non-fusogenic parasitophorous vacuole (PV) where the parasite replicates within the host cell.
Our results show that as early as 30 min following wild-type, non-irradiated sporozoite exposure, the expressions of at least 742 genes was selectively altered.
Artificial triggering of hypnozoites would make the medication more effective and resistance against a protein that the parasite itself uses during its life cycle would not develop.
The use of a sub-microlitre syringe for intradermal injections yielded excellent protective immunity.
The phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) regulates the conversion of Plasmodium spp.
Due to the fact that the life cycle of malaria parasites is complex, undergoing both an extracellular and intracellular phases in its host, the human immune system has to mobilize both the humoral and cellular arms of immune responses to fight against this parasitic infection.
Protection induced by irradiated Plasmodium berghei sporozoites (Pbγ-spz) in mice is linked to CD8+ T cells specific for exo-erythrocytic-stage Ags, and intrahepatic memory CD8+ T cells are associated with protracted protection.
Immunization with PfCelTOS resulted in potent humoral and cellular immune responses and most importantly induced sterile protection against a heterologous challenge with P. berghei sporozoites in a proportion of both inbred and outbred mice.
Here, we used surrogate T cell activation markers to identify and track whole-parasite, RAS-vaccine-induced effector and memory CD8 T cell responses. Our data show that the differential susceptibility of RAS-immune inbred mouse strains to Plasmodium berghei or P. yoelii sporozoite challenge does not result from host- or parasite-specific decreases in the CD8 T cell response.
Several studies have documented that helminth infections can interfere with the development of the immune response of vaccines against different diseases, although some results have been contradictory.