Intensive malaria transmission along international borders is a significant impediment to malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) of Southeast Asia. Passive case detection (PCD) was used to study the dynamics and trends of malaria transmission at the China–Myanmar border to provide epidemiologic information for improved malaria control.
Infection during pregnancy with Plasmodium falciparum is associated with maternal anaemia and adverse birth outcomes including low birth weight (LBW). Studies using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques indicate that at least half of all infections in maternal venous blood are missed by light microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests. The impact of these subpatent infections on maternal and birth outcomes remains unclear.
As areas move closer to malaria elimination, a combination of limited resources and increasing heterogeneity in case distribution and transmission favour a shift to targeted reactive interventions. Reactive case detection (RCD), the following up of additional individuals surrounding an index case, has the potential to target transmission pockets and identify asymptomatic cases in them. Current RCD implementation strategies vary, and it is unclear which are most effective in achieving elimination.
Heterogeneity in the immune response to parasite infection is mediated in part by differences in host genetics, gender, and age group. In infants and young children, ongoing immunological maturation often results in increased susceptibility to infection and variable responses to drug treatment, increasing the risk of complications. Even though significant age-associated effects on host cytokine responses to Plasmodium falciparum infection have been identified, age-associated effects on uncomplicated malaria infection and anti-malarial treatment remain poorly understood.
The clinical malaria incidence and anaemia prevalence were similar in the four study groups.
The incidence of malaria during term pregnancy was unexpectedly low, but still increased severe fetal and neonatal complications, thus advocating the administration of at least three doses of SMP, started before the 20th week of pregnancy.
Like malaria in mainland India, malaria in Meghalaya is complex, with both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasites in circulation, multiple Anopheles vector species, and reports of both unusual and severe malaria syndromes across all age groups.
Malaria is a life-threatening disease spread by mosquitoes.
There are several potential barriers and opportunities to implement community-based malaria elimination interventions in rural Haiti.
This was the first study with 42-day clinical follow-up to evaluate the variation of the number of copies and polymorphisms in the promoter region of the pvcrt-o and pvmdr1 genes in relation to treatment outcomes.