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Plasmodium falciparum

Genetic polymorphism of merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 of Plasmodium falciparum in the China–Myanmar border region

November 26, 2019 - 13:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cang-Lin Zhang, Hong-Ning Zhou, Quan Liu and Ya-Ming Yang
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18: 367, 19 November 2019

Malaria is a major public health problem in the China–Myanmar border region. The genetic structure of malaria parasite may affect its transmission model and control strategies. The present study was to analyse genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum by merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 (MSP1 and MSP2) and to determine the multiplicity of infection in clinical isolates in the China–Myanmar border region.

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Analysis on external competency assessment for malaria microscopists in China

November 19, 2019 - 06:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mei Li, Hejun Zhou, He Yan, Jianhai Yin, Xinyu Feng, Zhigui Xia and Shuisen Zhou
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:366, 14 November 2019

In order to meet the requirement of malaria elimination (ME), three courses of the External Competency Assessment of Malaria Microscopists (ECAMM) were conducted during 2017–2018 in China by facilitators designated by the World Health Organization (WHO-ECAMM). A training course with a model copied from the WHO-ECAMM course was also held a week ahead of ECAMM in March 2018. Thirty-six participants completed these courses and obtained different results.

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A comprehensive analysis of drug resistance molecular markers and Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity in two malaria endemic sites in Mali

November 18, 2019 - 16:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Seidina A. S. Diakité, Karim Traoré, Nafomon Sogoba, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:361, 12 November 2019

Drug resistance is one of the greatest challenges of malaria control programme in Mali. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide new and effective ways of tracking drug-resistant malaria parasites in Africa. 

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Mode of action of quinoline antimalarial drugs in red blood cells infected by Plasmodium falciparum revealed in vivo

November 18, 2019 - 16:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sergey Kapishnikov, Trine Staalsø, Yang Yang, Jiwoong Lee, Ana J. Pérez-Berná, Eva Pereiro, Yang Yang, Stephan Werner, Peter Guttmann, Leslie Leiserowitz, and Jens Als-Nielsen
Reference: 
PNAS November 12, 2019 116 (46) 22946-22952

The most widely used antimalarial drugs belong to the quinoline family. Their mode of action has not been characterized at the molecular level in vivo. We report the in vivo mode of action of a bromo analog of the drug chloroquine in rapidly frozen Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

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The Pfs230 N-terminal fragment, Pfs230D1+: expression and characterization of a potential malaria transmission-blocking vaccine candidate

November 11, 2019 - 16:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Shwu-Maan Lee, Yimin Wu, John M. Hickey, Kazutoyo Miura, Neal Whitaker, Sangeeta B. Joshi, David B. Volkin, C. Richter King and Jordan Plieskatt
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:356, 8 November 2019

Control and elimination of malaria can be accelerated by transmission-blocking interventions such as vaccines. A surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes, Pfs230, is a leading vaccine target antigen, and has recently progressed to experimental clinical trials. To support vaccine product development, an N-terminal Pfs230 antigen was designed to increase yield, as well as to improve antigen quality, integrity, and homogeneity.

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NOT Open Access | Kinetic Driver of Antibacterial Drugs against Plasmodium falciparum and Implications for Clinical Dosing

October 28, 2019 - 16:27 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Emily Caton, Elizabeth Nenortas, Rahul P. Bakshi and Theresa A. Shapiro
Reference: 
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. November 2019 63:e00416-19

Antibacterial drugs are an important component of malaria therapy. We studied the interactions of clindamycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin against Plasmodium falciparum under static and dynamic conditions.

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K13-propeller gene polymorphisms of Plasmodium falciparum and the therapeutic effect of artesunate among migrant workers returning to Guangxi, China (2014–2017)

October 22, 2019 - 16:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jun Li, Yunliang Shi, Jian Qin, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:349, 16 October 2019

The resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin has been identified in Asia and some parts of Africa. The drug resistance of P. falciparum will be an obstacle to the successful elimination of malaria by 2025. Whole-genome sequencing of the artemisinin-resistant parasite line revealed mutations on the k13 gene associated with drug resistance in P. falciparum. To understand the artemisinin resistance of the imported P. falciparum cases from Africa, the mutations in the k13 gene in parasites from imported malaria cases in Guangxi Province were detected and the treatment efficiency of artesunate monotherapy was observed.

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Structural insights into diverse modes of ICAM-1 binding by Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

October 8, 2019 - 15:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Frank Lennartz, Cameron Smith, Alister G. Craig, and Matthew K. Higgins
Reference: 
PNAS October 1, 2019 116 (40) 20124-20134

A major determinant of pathogenicity in malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is the adhesion of parasite-infected erythrocytes to the vasculature or tissues of infected individuals.

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Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes in parasite isolates from asymptomatic individuals in Southeast Nigeria 11 years after withdrawal of chloroquine

October 8, 2019 - 15:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Moses N. Ikegbunam, Charles N. Nkonganyi, Bolaji N. Thomas, Charles O. Esimone, Thirumalaisamy P. Velavan and Olusola Ojurongbe
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:343, 7 October 2019

A reversal of chloroquine (CQ) resistance following a period of withdrawal has raised the possibility of its re-introduction. This study evaluated the current prevalence of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 alleles in Plasmodium falciparum isolates, 11 years after CQ withdrawal in Southeast Nigeria.

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Uptake of a fluorescently tagged chloroquine analogue is reduced in CQ-resistant compared to CQ-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum parasites

October 8, 2019 - 15:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sarah J. Reiling and Petra Rohrbach
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:342, 7 October 2019

Chloroquine (CQ) was the drug of choice for decades in the treatment of falciparum malaria until resistance emerged. CQ is suggested to accumulate in the parasite’s digestive vacuole (DV), where it unfolds its anti-malarial properties. Discrepancies of CQ accumulation in CQ-sensitive (CQS) and CQ-resistant (CQR) strains are thought to play a significant role in drug susceptibility. Analysis of CQ transport and intracellular localization using a fluorescently tagged CQ analogue could provide much needed information to distinguish susceptible from resistant parasite strains. The fluorescently tagged CQ analogue LynxTag-CQ™GREEN (CQGREEN) is commercially available and was assessed for its suitability.

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