The vector behaviour and spatio-temporal patterns of malaria transmission in Southeast Asia impose new challenges when changing objectives from control to elimination of malaria and make it necessary to focus not only on the known main vector species.
We compare alternative hypotheses concerning the origin of this pattern. The observed data deviate from the expectations based on a single-panmictic population with or without growth, or a stable but spatially structured population.
This is the second in a series of three articles documenting the geographical distribution of 41 dominant vector species (DVS) of human malaria.
The study used World Health Organization standard susceptibility bioassays to detect knockdown phenotypes and a novel nested polymerase chain reaction to detect the knockdown resistant (kdr) allele in these vectors.
An experimental hut trial comparing unwashed and 20 times washed PermaNet 3.0 and PermaNet 2.0, Olyset Net and a conventional deltamethrin-treated net washed three times was conducted in southern Benin.
To test the paraphyletic hypothesis and examine the utility of the Folmer region, genealogical trees based on a concatenated (white + 3' COI sequences) dataset and pairwise differentiation of COI fragments were examined.
The results suggest that the evaluation of the IgG response specific to gSG6-P1 in children could also represent a biomarker of exposure to An. funestus bites. The availability of such a biomarker evaluating the exposure to both main Plasmodium falciparum vectors in Africa could be particularly relevant as a direct criterion for the evaluation of the efficacy of vector control strategies.
The assignment analyses showed two incompletely isolated gene pools separated by the Eastern Andean cordillera. However, other possible geographical barriers (rivers and other mountains) did not play any role in the moderate genetic heterogeneity found among these populations (FST = 0.069).
Measures of mean cuticle thickness in laboratory samples of female An. funestus were obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These females were drawn from a laboratory colony carrying the pyrethroid resistance phenotype at a stable rate, but not fixed.
Our results demonstrate that Anopheles polytene chromosomes and whole-genome shotgun assembly render the mapping and characterization of a significant part of heterochromatic scaffolds a possibility.