The recent emergence in Southeast Asia of artemisinin resistance poses major threats to malaria control and elimination globally. Green nanotechnologies can constitute interesting tools for discovering anti-malarial medicines. This systematic review focused on the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles as potential source of new antiplasmodial drugs.
Competitive outcomes between co-infecting malaria parasite lines can reveal fitness disparities in blood stage growth. Blood stage fitness costs often accompany the evolution of drug resistance, with the expectation that relatively fitter parasites will be more likely to spread in populations. With the recent emergence of artemisinin resistance, it is important to understand the relative competitive fitness of the metabolically active asexual blood stage parasites. Genetically distinct drug resistant parasite clones with independently evolved sets of mutations are likely to vary in asexual proliferation rate, contributing to their chance of transmission to the mosquito vector.
Mutational analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum kelch 13 (k13) gene is routinely performed to track the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance. Surveillance of resistance markers has been impeded by the difficulty of extracting sufficient DNA from low parasite density infections common in low-transmission settings, such as Southeast Asia. This problem can be overcome by collecting large volumes of venous blood. Efficient methods for extracting and amplifying k13 from dried blood spots (DBS) would facilitate resistance surveillance.
The attachment of alkylamino side chains leads to the improvement of antiplasmodial activity and aqueous solubility of selective PfGSK-inhibitors belonging to the class of 4-phenylthieno[2,3-b]pyridines.
Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), the current frontline artemisinin combination therapy used to treat Plasmodium falciparum malaria in multiple Southeast Asian countries, is now increasingly failing in Cambodia, where artemisinin resistance is nearly fixed, which suggests that PPQ resistance has emerged and is spreading rapidly in the Greater Mekong Subregion.
Functional analysis of artemisinin resistance subpopulations illustrates the strong interplay between ubiquitination and cell division or differentiation in artemisinin resistant parasites.
This study of 68 culture-adapted Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates from Cambodia with known clearance values, associated the D584V PfKelch13 mutation with increased ring-stage survival and identified parasites that lack pfkelch13 mutations yet exhibit increased ring-stage survival.
The efficacy of AL, AS + MQ and DP remains high in northern Myanmar despite widespread evidence of k13 mutations associated with delayed parasite clearance.
No evidence was found to corroborate the specific allegation of artemisinin resistance in Lunda Sul.
This is the first study to document the presence of F446I NS mutation in the k13 propeller region from Changlang district, Arunachal Pradesh, a site adjoining the Indo-Myanmar border region, where this mutation is highly prevalent.