Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a threat to public health, but Plasmodium vivax malaria is most prevalent in Latin America, where the incidence rate has been increasing since 2016, particularly in Venezuela and Brazil. The Brazilian Amazon reported 193,000 cases in 2017, which were mostly confirmed as P. vivax (~ 90%). Herein, the relationships among malaria incidence rates and the proportion of accumulated deforestation were contrasted using data from the states of Acre and Rondônia in the south-western Brazilian Amazon. The main purpose is to test the hypothesis that the observed difference in incidence rates is associated with the proportion of accumulated deforestation.
Plasmodium falciparum malaria
We assessed potential effects of local meteorological and environmental conditions, indoor residual spraying with insecticides, insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) use at individual and community levels, and individual factors on Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence in a village in south Ethiopia.
Arterolane at daily doses of 100 and 200 mg is a rapidly acting, effective, and safe synthetic antimalarial drug, which may potentially represent an alternative to artemisinin derivatives in antimalarial combination therapy.
A systematic review and meta-analysis examining the association between anti-merozoite antibody responses and incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria by Freya Fowkes and colleagues aids identification of antigens that confer protection from malaria.
The GM allotypes have significant influence on susceptibility to uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria and antigen-dependent influence on total IgG and IgG subclasses.
Improved methods for assessing antimalarial immunity will strengthen malaria control efforts.
Cassiarin A 1, a tricyclic alkaloid, isolated from the leaves of Cassia siamea (Leguminosae), shows powerful antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro as well as P. berghei in vivo, which may be valuable leads for novel antimalarials.
The Anopheles annularis group mosquitoes, subgenus Cellia Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae), includes five recognized species: An. annularis Van der Wulp, An. nivipes Theobald, An. pallidus Theobald, An. philippinensis Ludlow and An. schueffneri Stanton. From these five, the three most common species found in Orissa were considered for this study because of their remarkable vectorial and behavioral variation and the important role they play in malaria transmission. To identify and understand their role in malaria transmission we developed a single multiplex PCR-based assay. This one-step PCR-based method constitutes a very powerful tool in large surveys of anopheline populations.
Genome-wide approaches are now warranted to map the major genetic determinants of variable antibody isotype and subclass responses to malaria, alongside evaluation of their impact on infection and disease. Although plasma levels of IgG4 to malaria antigens are generally low, the exceptionally high heritability of levels of this subclass in children deserves particular investigation.
This case strongly supports the hypothesis that parasite surface proteins such as PfEMP1, A-type RIFIN or STEVOR are involved in interactions of infected erythrocytes with endothelial receptors mediating sequestration of mature asexual and immature sexual stages of P. falciparum. In contrast, multicopy gene families coding for B-type RIFIN and PfMC-2TM proteins may not be involved in sequestration, as these genes were transcribed in infected but not sequestered erythrocytes.