Immunity against the pre-erythrocytic stages of malaria is the most promising, as it is strong and fully sterilizing.
The present work adds new insights into the conserved role of fbn9 in insect immunity in a broader range of anopheline species and reinforces the possibility of manipulating mosquito immunity to design novel pathogen control strategies.
Our data demonstrate the local abundance of mosquitoes that could propagate arboviral infections in Kenya and the high prevalence of vector arbovirus positivity during a Rift Valley fever outbreak.
As we move into the malaria eradication era, it is vital that the implications of insecticide resistance are understood and strategies to mitigate these effects are implemented.
Physiological characteristics of insects can influence their susceptibility to fungal infection of which age and nutritional status are among the most important.
Evolutionary innovations can be driven by spatial and temporal changes in gene expression. Several such differences have been documented in the embryos of lower and higher Diptera.
Vector-borne infectious diseases (VBD) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and animals.
While the role of LSA-1 is still unknown these results suggest that it becomes highly cross-linked which may aid in the protection of the parasite as it develops.
To develop a vivax malaria vaccine for blocking malarial transmission, the ookinete surface protein Pvs28 was cloned from Korean malaria patients using polymerase chain reaction.
These results seem to indicate that hyperoxia activates antioxidant defence systems in parasites to preserve the integrity of its cellular structures.