Malaria parasites reside inside erythrocytes and the disease manifestations are linked to the growth inside infected erythrocytes (IE).
While this study highlights the complex interactions occurring between the parasite, mosquito, and midgut microbiota, the ultimate goal is to determine the influence of midgut microbiota on Plasmodium development in anopheline midguts in malaria endemic settings.
These results therefore, overall indicate the possibility of selection and optimization of DNA vaccine formulation for intravenous delivery and may be useful in designing a nanoparticle-coated DNA vaccine that could optimally elicit a desired antibody response for various disease conditions.
Various factors impact the severity of malaria, including the nutritional status of the host. Vitamin E, an intra and extracellular anti-oxidant, is one such nutrient whose absence was shown previously to negatively affect Plasmodium development.
These results suggest that a combination of protective antibodies with either the same or different isotypes can produce either an additive or a suppressive effect in passive immunization. This phenomenon may be important in better understanding immunity in this experimental mouse model of malaria.