SDFK40 performance was poor at low (<100/microl) parasite densities, precluding its use as the only diagnostic tool for malaria diagnosis.
Whilst primaquine remains the drug of choice to eradicate hypnozoites and control P. vivax transmission, the risks associated with its use must be minimized during its deployment.
These results suggest that sequence variations in the DHFR-TS represent the prevalence of antifolate-resistant P. vivax in Korea.
VX-4 demonstrates pH-dependent substrate switching, which might offer an efficient mechanism for the specific cleavage of different substrates in different intracellular environments. VX-4 might function as a hemoglobinase in the acidic parasite food vacuole, a maturase of P. vivax plasmepsin 4 at neutral or acidic pH, and a cytoskeleton-degrading protease in the neutral erythrocyte cytosol.
Microscopy is more cost-effective than OptiMal(R) in these remote areas if high accuracy of microscopy is maintained in the field. Decision regarding use of rapid tests for diagnosis of malaria in these areas depends on current microscopy accuracy in the field.
Approximately 3.2 billion people live in areas where malaria is endemic, and WHO estimates that 350 to 500 million malaria cases occur each year worldwide. This high prevalence, and the high frequency of international travel, creates significant risk for the exportation of malaria to countries where malaria is not endemic and for the introduction of malaria organisms into the blood supply.
Disease emergence, extinction, and transmission all depend strongly on climate. Mathematical models offer powerful tools for understanding geographic shifts in incidence as climate changes. Nonlinear dependences of transmission on climate necessitates consideration of both changing climate trends and variability across time scales of interest.
Asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infections and anemia are highly prevalent conditions in tropical regions. We studied whether asymptomatic parasitemia induces hepcidin- and/or cytokine-mediated iron maldistribution and anemia.