Our findings support an emerging view with a possible role of proboscis as important equipment during host-seeking, and give us an insight into how these appendages likely evolved from a common origin in order to function as antenna organs.
We compare alternative hypotheses concerning the origin of this pattern. The observed data deviate from the expectations based on a single-panmictic population with or without growth, or a stable but spatially structured population.
The effectiveness of insecticide based vector control methods is hampered there by the development of insecticide resistance.
The presentation will discuss the state-of-the-art of this behavioural technology for vector-borne disease control, and provide an outlook for future prospects.
IVM is a strategy to tackle these problems. Under the global IVM initiative, a global action plan on IVM has been developed by a group of stakeholders, facilitated by WHO.
To test the paraphyletic hypothesis and examine the utility of the Folmer region, genealogical trees based on a concatenated (white + 3' COI sequences) dataset and pairwise differentiation of COI fragments were examined.
Our results suggest that in regions where use of vector control interventions is high and vector densities are low, CDC light traps can be used to monitor An. arabiensis HBRs.
The results of these studies demonstrate an optimal method for sampling during surveillance and control programmes in rural villages of highlands and arid areas of Africa using inexpensive baits and boxes.
Insecticide resistance is a common occurrence and has been intensively studied in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, providing a useful model for examining how insecticide resistance develops and what pleiotropic effects are likely to emerge as a consequence of resistance.
Measures of mean cuticle thickness in laboratory samples of female An. funestus were obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These females were drawn from a laboratory colony carrying the pyrethroid resistance phenotype at a stable rate, but not fixed.