Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance surveillance is key to successful disease control and eradication. Contemporary methods that only allow determination of prevalence of resistance are expensive, time consuming and require ethical considerations. A newer method involving Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) permits obtaining frequency of resistance while allowing to detect minority variants in mixed infections. Here, NGS was tested for P. falciparum resistance marker detection in mosquito samples as a feasible and suitable alternative for molecular resistance surveillance. Anopheles funestus were collected in southern Mozambique using CDC light traps and manual collections. DNA was extracted from either whole mosquito, head-thorax and abdomen separately or pools of five mosquitoes. These samples were screened for P. falciparum and if positive for k13, pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhps and pfdhfr mutations related to anti-malarial drug resistance with Sanger sequencing and NGS.
Effective malaria surveillance requires detailed assessments of mosquitoes biting indoors, where interventions such as insecticide-treated nets work best, and outdoors, where other interventions may be required. Such assessments often involve volunteers exposing their legs to attract mosquitoes [i.e., human landing catches (HLC)], a procedure with significant safety and ethical concerns. Here, an exposure-free, miniaturized, double-net trap (DN-Mini) is used to assess relationships between indoor–outdoor biting preferences of malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus, and their physiological ages (approximated by parity and insemination states).
This study revealed how small-scale agriculture along a rural-to-urban transition was associated with An. arabiensis and An. funestus indoor abundances, and that indoor Anopheles density can be high within Blantyre city limits, particularly where agriculture is present
Environmental temperature has a marked effect on the efficacy of insecticides used in public health against important African malaria vectors.
The high genetic diversity among populations from Senegal River basin coupled with no evidence of bottleneck and with a gene flow with southern population suggests that the re-colonization was likely carried out by a massive and repeated stepping-stone dispersion starting from the neighboring areas where An. funestus endured.
These findings and the greater tolerance of females to thermal extremes may have significant implications for future malaria transmission, especially in areas of current seasonal transmission and in areas on the boundaries of current vector distribution.
The possible effect of moonlight on the biting behaviour of mosquitoes in southern Mozambique, in particular that of Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae), a primary vector of malaria, was investigated by comparing catches indoors and outdoors using CDC light traps and ‘Furvela’ tent traps, respectively, for 35 consecutive nights, from 9 September to 15 October 2008.
The distribution of the RdlR mutation in An. funestus populations in Africa suggests extensive barriers to gene flow between populations from different regions.
Here, we report on wing morphometric variations in karyotyped specimens of this species collected throughout a wide range of eco-geographical conditions in Cameroon (Central Africa). Our results revealed strong selection on mosquito wing traits.
The insecticide resistance status and role in malaria transmission of Anopheles funestus was evaluated at the Maragra Sugar Estate in southern Mozambique where an IRS vector control programme has been in operation for seven years using the carbamate insecticide bendiocarb.