The different factors which may influence the risk of contracting malaria for travelers visiting endemic countries and the strategy to reduce completely the number of fatal cases were considered and discussed.
Different kinds of heterogeneity both have different effects and affect different outcomes. Patterns of co-variation are also important.
To avoid re-emergence of malaria on the island and to protect themselves, travelers should reduce their risks of acquisition and importation of parasites by using adequate preventive measures.
Having reliable data on malaria prevalence and estimates of clinical malaria incidence, prior to an intensive control effort, is of paramount importance. The authors rightly argue that the efficacy/effectiveness of control efforts might be over-estimated if so were the baseline figures.
A systematic review and meta-analysis examining the association between anti-merozoite antibody responses and incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria by Freya Fowkes and colleagues aids identification of antigens that confer protection from malaria.