Naturally acquired blood-stage infections of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum typically harbour multiple haploid clones.
There are many different types of migrants and types of movements and no single commonly agreed definition for transit migration.
Our findings suggest that cross-resistance between drugs targeting the same enzyme reflect the fitness landscapes associated with each particular drug and the position of the genotype on both landscapes.
There is a high prevalence of dhfr triple mutant with some dhps point mutations in Gabon, in line with treatment failures observed, and molecular markers of SP resistance should be closely monitored.
Approximately 230 million people live in Indonesia. The country is also home to over 20 anopheline vectors of malaria which transmit all four of the species of Plasmodium that routinely infect humans.
Plasmodium vivax causes 25–40% of malaria cases worldwide, yet research on this human malaria parasite has been neglected. Nevertheless, the recent publication of the P. vivax reference genome now allows genomics and systems biology approaches to be applied to this pathogen.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has long been recognized to promote malaria parasite killing, but also to contribute to the development of severe malaria disease. The precise molecular mechanisms that influence these different outcomes in malaria patients are not well understood, but the virulence and drug-resistance phenotype of malaria parasites and the genetic background and age of patients are likely to be important determinants.
Increasing prevalence of the dhfr triple mutant and dhps double mutant genotypes in Africa are consistent with the loss of efficacy of SP for treatment of clinical malaria in most parts of this continent.
At a global scale, because of uncertainty about the time to the emergence of ACT resistance, there was a strong case for MFTs to guard against early failure.
PCR-HRM is an inexpensive option for the determination of drug resistance profile in P. falciparum and will see increasing use as an alternative to sequencing and 5'nuclease PCR assays in reference laboratories or once PCR systems that are able to conduct HRM become commonplace.