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Drug Resistance

Open Access | Drug-Resistant Genotypes and Multi-Clonality in Plasmodium falciparum Analysed by Direct Genome Sequencing from Peripheral Blood of Malaria Patients

August 24, 2011 - 09:12 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Timothy Robinson, Susana G. Campino, Sarah Auburn, Samuel A. Assefa, Spencer D. Polley, Magnus Manske, Bronwyn MacInnis, Kirk A. Rockett, Gareth L. Maslen, Mandy Sanders, Michael A. Quail, Peter L. Chiodini, Dominic P. Kwiatkowski, Taane G. Clark, Colin J. Sutherland
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 6(8): e23204

Naturally acquired blood-stage infections of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum typically harbour multiple haploid clones.

Open Access | The Transit Phase of Migration: Circulation of Malaria and Its Multidrug-Resistant Forms in Africa

June 2, 2011 - 07:12 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Caroline Lynch, Cally Roper
Reference: 
PLoS Med 8(5): e1001040

There are many different types of migrants and types of movements and no single commonly agreed definition for transit migration.

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Open Access | Fitness Trade-Offs in the Evolution of Dihydrofolate Reductase and Drug Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum

May 31, 2011 - 09:50 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Marna S. Costanzo, Kyle M. Brown, Daniel L. Hartl
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 6(5): e19636

Our findings suggest that cross-resistance between drugs targeting the same enzyme reflect the fitness landscapes associated with each particular drug and the position of the genotype on both landscapes.

Open Access | High prevalence of dhfr triple mutant and correlation with high rates of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment failures in vivo in Gabonese children

May 18, 2011 - 10:13 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma, Sunny Oyakhirome, Rosalynn Ord, Julian J Gabor, Katja C Greutelaers, Katharina Profanter, Benedikt Greutelaers, Florian Kurth, Bertrand Lell, Juergen FJ Kun, Saadou Issifou, Cally Roper, Peter G Kremsner, Martin P Grobusch
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2011, 10:123 (14 May 2011)

There is a high prevalence of dhfr triple mutant with some dhps point mutations in Gabon, in line with treatment failures observed, and molecular markers of SP resistance should be closely monitored.

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Chapter 2-Malaria Distribution, Prevalence, Drug Resistance and Control in Indonesia

February 9, 2011 - 08:49 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Iqbal R.F. Elyazar, Simon I. Hay, J. Kevin Baird
Reference: 
Advances in Parasitology, Volume 74, 2011, Pages 41-175

Approximately 230 million people live in Indonesia. The country is also home to over 20 anopheline vectors of malaria which transmit all four of the species of Plasmodium that routinely infect humans.

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Open Access | Whole-genome sequencing and microarray analysis of ex vivo Plasmodium vivax reveal selective pressure on putative drug resistance genes

November 19, 2010 - 12:19 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Neekesh V. Dharia, A. Taylor Bright, Elizabeth A. Winzeler
Reference: 
PNAS November 16, 2010 vol. 107 no. 46 20045-20050

Plasmodium vivax causes 25–40% of malaria cases worldwide, yet research on this human malaria parasite has been neglected. Nevertheless, the recent publication of the P. vivax reference genome now allows genomics and systems biology approaches to be applied to this pathogen.

TNF family members and malaria: Old observations, new insights and future directions Original

September 8, 2010 - 08:38 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Louise M. Randall, Christian R. Engwerda
Reference: 
Experimental Parasitology, Volume 126, Issue 3, November 2010, Pages 326-331

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has long been recognized to promote malaria parasite killing, but also to contribute to the development of severe malaria disease. The precise molecular mechanisms that influence these different outcomes in malaria patients are not well understood, but the virulence and drug-resistance phenotype of malaria parasites and the genetic background and age of patients are likely to be important determinants.

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Open Access | Anti-folate drug resistance in Africa: meta-analysis of reported dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) mutant genotype frequencies in African Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations

September 1, 2010 - 08:07 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Sridaran S, McClintock SK, Syphard LM, Herman KM, Barnwell JW, Udhayakumar V
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2010, 9:247 (30 August 2010)

Increasing prevalence of the dhfr triple mutant and dhps double mutant genotypes in Africa are consistent with the loss of efficacy of SP for treatment of clinical malaria in most parts of this continent.

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Open Access | Prospective strategies to delay the evolution of anti-malarial drug resistance: weighing the uncertainty

July 27, 2010 - 13:54 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Smith DL, Klein EY, McKenzie F, Laxminarayan R
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2010, 9:217 (23 July 2010)

At a global scale, because of uncertainty about the time to the emergence of ACT resistance, there was a strong case for MFTs to guard against early failure.

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Open Access | Methodology: Rapid identification of chloroquine and atovaquone drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum using high-resolution melt polymerase chain reaction

May 24, 2010 - 13:02 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Gan L, Loh J
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2010, 9:134 (21 May 2010)

PCR-HRM is an inexpensive option for the determination of drug resistance profile in P. falciparum and will see increasing use as an alternative to sequencing and 5'nuclease PCR assays in reference laboratories or once PCR systems that are able to conduct HRM become commonplace.

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