Mosquito saliva elicits immune responses in humans following mosquito blood feeding. Detection of human antibodies recognizing the Anopheles gambiae salivary gland protein 6 (gSG6) or the gSG6-P1 peptide in residents of Africa, South America and Southeast Asia suggested the potential for these antibodies to serve as a universal marker to estimate human biting rates. Validating the utility of this approach requires concurrent comparisons of anopheline biting rates with antibodies to the gSG6 protein to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the assay for monitoring changes in vector populations. This study investigated whether seroprevalence of anti-gSG6 antibodies in humans reflected the relative exposure to Anopheles farauti bites in the Solomon Islands as estimated from sympatric human landing catches.
Both An. gambiae and An. funestus are resistant to pyrethroids but fully susceptible to bendiocarb at all sites.
The data suggest that the An. nili is, at least, as diverged from An. gambiae as An. stephensi. We provide evidence that 2La/a arrangement of An. gambiae is present in outgroup species An. nili and An. stephensi confirming the ancestral status of the 2La inversion in the An. gambiae complex.