The optimum mixture of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and geranylacetone was a 1:1 ratio and this provided the most effective protection against all species of mosquito tested. With further improvements in formulation, selected blends of these compounds have the potential to be exploited and developed as human-derived novel repellents for personal protection.
Existing models will tend to underestimate mosquito population growth under current conditions, and may overestimate relative increases in population growth under future climate change. These results highlight the need for better integration of biological and environmental information at the scale relevant to mosquito biology.
In French Guiana, malaria transmission is mainly due to Anopheles darlingi Root, but other species also are involved. Investigation and surveillance must be carried out on all the species to unravel malaria transmission patterns.
A large proportion of mosquito larval habitats in urban and rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa are man-made. Therefore, community-based larval source management (LSM) could make a significant contribution to malaria control in an integrated vector management approach.
The immunological mechanisms responsible for protection against malaria infection vary among Plasmodium species, host species and the developmental stage of parasite, and are poorly understood. A challenge with live parasites is the most relevant approach to testing the efficacy of experimental malaria vaccines.
We suggest that additional research is needed to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of intraspecific variation in traits related to disease transmission and discuss the implications of our results for the efficacy of creating transgenic strains refractory to disease transmission.
Interventions that reduce mosquito survival were also found to be slightly less effective when implemented in systems with shorter EIPs. Future transmission models that examine anti-vectorial interventions should incorporate realistic age dependent mortality rates.
Our results reveal a specific vital role for an apicomplexan G-actin-binding protein during sporogony, the parasite replication phase that precedes formation of malaria transmission stages.
Larviciding to control malaria was assessed in rural areas with extensive seasonal flooding. Larval and adult mosquitoes and malaria incidence were surveyed routinely in four 100-km2 areas either side of the Gambia River.
The causative agent of malaria Plasmodium, has to undergo complex developmental transitions and survive attacks from the mosquito's innate immune system to achieve transmission from one host to another through the vector.