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Plasmodium

The malaria candidate vaccine liver stage antigen-3 is highly conserved in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from diverse geographical areas

October 29, 2009 - 12:53 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
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Author(s): 
Eric Prieur, Pierre Druilhe
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2009, 8:247 (29 October 2009)

The paper compares the sequences of LSA-3 from four geographical areas and found LSA-3 to be a highly conserved antigen. This finding further supports the usefulness of LSA-3 as a pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine candidate.

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Characterization of immunoglobulin G antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite surface antigen MB2 in malaria exposed individuals

October 29, 2009 - 12:12 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
Author(s): 
Thanh V Nguyen, John B Sacci Jr, Patricia de la Vega, Chandy C John, Anthony A James, Angray S Kang
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2009, 8:235 (23 October 2009)

MB2 protein is a sporozoite surface antigen on the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. A preliminary analysis of the human humoral response against MB2 indicates that it may be an additional highly conserved target for immune intervention at the pre-erythrocytic stage of P. falciparum life cycle.

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Distillery: Therapeutic: Plasmepsin (Plasmodium falciparum)

October 25, 2009 - 17:01 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
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Reference: 
Science-Business eXchange 2, (15 October 2009) doi:10.1038/scibx.2009.1508

In vitro studies identified a plasmepsin inhibitor that could aid in the development of new treatments for malaria. Further details on the research, next steps and licensing status are discussed in the article.

 

Special Focus Review: From the circumsporozoite protein to the RTS,S/AS candidate vaccine

October 25, 2009 - 16:43 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
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Author(s): 
Joe Cohen, Victor Nussenzweig, Johan Vekemans and Amanda Leach
Reference: 
Human Vaccines, Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2010

The RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine candidate has recently entered phase 3 testing. Reaching this important milestone is the culmination of more than 20 years of research and development by GlaxoSmithKline and partners and collaborators. The vaccine has been developed to protect young children and infants living in sub-Saharan Africa against clinical and severe disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection.

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Special Focus Review: The role of Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens in protective immunity and vaccine development

October 25, 2009 - 16:06 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
Author(s): 
Lars Hviid
Reference: 
Human Vaccines, Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2010

This review summarizes the evidence that VSAs are important targets of NAI, discusses why VSA-based vaccines might be feasible despite the extensive intra- and interclonal variation of VSAs, and how vaccines based on this type of antigens fit into the current global strategy to reduce, eliminate, and eventually eradicate the burden of malaria.

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Special Focus Review: The past decade in malaria synthetic peptide vaccine clinical trials

October 25, 2009 - 15:59 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
Author(s): 
Elizabeth Nardin
Reference: 
Human Vaccines, Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2010

Over the past  decade (2000 – 2009),  there have been nine clinical trials of synthetic malaria peptide vaccines designed to target the pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages of the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. The results of these clinical trials, while encouraging, have emphasized the critical roles of immunological assays, in particular functional assays, for the evaluation of potential vaccine candidates.  Additional challenges include the need for potent adjuvants for the development of synthetic peptide vaccines that can effectively target multiple stages of the Plasmodium parasite.

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Research Brief: Disruption of lipid rafts by lidocaine inhibits erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum

October 25, 2009 - 15:26 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
Author(s): 
Ichiro Koshino, Yuichi Takakuwa
Reference: 
Experimental Parasitology, Volume 123, Issue 4, December 2009, Pages 381-383, doi:10.1016/j.exppara.2009.08.019

Membrane lipid rafts have been implicated in erythrocyte invasion process by Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we examined the effect of lidocaine, a local anesthetic, which disrupts lipid rafts reversibly without affecting membrane cholesterol content on parasite invasion. Our findings show that disruption of lipid rafts in the context of normal cholesterol content markedly inhibits parasite invasion and confirm an important role for lipid rafts in invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum.

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Suggestive evidence for Darwinian selection against asparagine-linked glycans of Plasmodium and Toxoplasma

October 25, 2009 - 15:19 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
Author(s): 
G. Guy Bushkin et al.
Reference: 
Eukaryot. Cell. published 16 October 2009, 10.1128/EC.00197-09

We conclude that possible selection against N-glycans in protists with apicoplasts occurs by eliminating N-glycans (Theileria), reducing their length (Plasmodium), or by reducing the number of N-glycan sites (Toxoplasma). In addition, occupation of N-glycan sites is markedly reduced in apicoplast proteins versus some secretory proteins in both Plasmodium and Toxoplasma.

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Mechanisms of Resistance: Plasmodium falciparum Drug Resistance in Madagascar: Facing the Spread of Unusual pfdhfr and pfmdr-1 Haplotypes and the Decrease of Dihydroartemisinin Susceptibility

October 25, 2009 - 15:02 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
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Author(s): 
Valérie Andriantsoanirina et al.
Reference: 
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2009 53: 4588-4597, doi:10.1128/AAC.00610-09

The aim of this study was to provide the first comprehensive spatiotemporal picture of Plasmodium falciparum resistance in various geographic areas in Madagascar. Additional data about the antimalarial resistance in the neighboring islands of the Comoros archipelago were also collected.

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