The paper compares the sequences of LSA-3 from four geographical areas and found LSA-3 to be a highly conserved antigen. This finding further supports the usefulness of LSA-3 as a pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine candidate.
MB2 protein is a sporozoite surface antigen on the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. A preliminary analysis of the human humoral response against MB2 indicates that it may be an additional highly conserved target for immune intervention at the pre-erythrocytic stage of P. falciparum life cycle.
In vitro studies identified a plasmepsin inhibitor that could aid in the development of new treatments for malaria. Further details on the research, next steps and licensing status are discussed in the article.
The RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine candidate has recently entered phase 3 testing. Reaching this important milestone is the culmination of more than 20 years of research and development by GlaxoSmithKline and partners and collaborators. The vaccine has been developed to protect young children and infants living in sub-Saharan Africa against clinical and severe disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection.
This review summarizes the evidence that VSAs are important targets of NAI, discusses why VSA-based vaccines might be feasible despite the extensive intra- and interclonal variation of VSAs, and how vaccines based on this type of antigens fit into the current global strategy to reduce, eliminate, and eventually eradicate the burden of malaria.
Over the past decade (2000 – 2009), there have been nine clinical trials of synthetic malaria peptide vaccines designed to target the pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages of the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. The results of these clinical trials, while encouraging, have emphasized the critical roles of immunological assays, in particular functional assays, for the evaluation of potential vaccine candidates. Additional challenges include the need for potent adjuvants for the development of synthetic peptide vaccines that can effectively target multiple stages of the Plasmodium parasite.
Membrane lipid rafts have been implicated in erythrocyte invasion process by Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we examined the effect of lidocaine, a local anesthetic, which disrupts lipid rafts reversibly without affecting membrane cholesterol content on parasite invasion. Our findings show that disruption of lipid rafts in the context of normal cholesterol content markedly inhibits parasite invasion and confirm an important role for lipid rafts in invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum.
We conclude that possible selection against N-glycans in protists with apicoplasts occurs by eliminating N-glycans (Theileria), reducing their length (Plasmodium), or by reducing the number of N-glycan sites (Toxoplasma). In addition, occupation of N-glycan sites is markedly reduced in apicoplast proteins versus some secretory proteins in both Plasmodium and Toxoplasma.
The aim of this study was to provide the first comprehensive spatiotemporal picture of Plasmodium falciparum resistance in various geographic areas in Madagascar. Additional data about the antimalarial resistance in the neighboring islands of the Comoros archipelago were also collected.