Acute infection with Plasmodium vivax, classically associated with benign disease, has been presenting as serious and even fatal disease in recent years. Severe disease is mainly due to biochemical and hematological alterations during the acute phase of infection. In the present cross-sectional study, the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) was evaluated as a method for identifying patients at risk of severe vivax malaria.
Despite efforts made over decades by the Peruvian government to eliminate malaria, Plasmodium vivax remains a challenge for public health decision-makers in the country. The uneven distribution of its incidence, plus its complex pattern of dispersion, has made ineffective control measures based on global information that lack the necessary detail to understand transmission fully. In this sense, population genetic tools can complement current surveillance. This study describes the genetic diversity and population structure from September 2012 to March 2015 in three geographically distant settlements, Cahuide (CAH), Lupuna (LUP) and Santa Emilia (STE), located in the Peruvian Amazon.
We herein report the first case of Mediterranean glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variant from Bangladesh. A boy had been admitted to hospital and was diagnosed with uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax infection and treated with 30 mg/kg body weight (BW) chloroquine for 3 days and 4.8 mg/kg BW primaquine (PQ) to be taken over 14 days.
Primaquine administration results in H 2O 2 accumulation in bone marrow, where gametocytes and asexual parasites are therefore killed. This finding, by Camarda et al. , supports the theory that the nonperipheral blood origin of recurrent Plasmodium vivax malaria is both hypnozoites (relapse source) and merozoites (recrudescence source), not hypnozoites only.
Duffy blood group antigens serve as receptors for Plasmodium vivax invasion into erythrocytes, and they are determined by polymorphisms of the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC), also known as Fy glycoprotein (FY). Duffy negativity, i.e., absence of the antigens, protects against P. vivax infection and is rare among non-African populations. However, data on DARC polymorphisms and their impact on Plasmodium infection in India are scarce.
Malaria is more often considered a problem of the rural poor and the disease has been overlooked in urban settings for centuries due to the assumption that economic development in urban areas results in better life conditions, such as improved housing, drainage system and environmental changes that makes urban areas not conducive for breeding of the malaria vector. But, for many African countries, including Ethiopia, in most urban areas, although there are rapid developments, they are characterized by poor housing, lack of sanitation and drainage of surface water that would provide favourable conditions for vector breeding. Limited studies have been conducted as far as urban malaria is concerned in Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to assess the status of falciparum and vivax malaria transmission in Adama City, Eastern Shoa Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. Understanding the local epidemiology of malaria will help policy makers and other stakeholders to design and implement tailored cost effective and efficient intervention strategies targeting urban malaria.
Extrapolation of data from Rhesus monkeys to humans, and the available clinical data, suggest that tafenoquine also does not exhibit pamaquine, pentaquine or plasmocid-like clinical neurologic signs in humans.
Plasmodium falciparum, the major cause of malaria morbidity and mortality in humans, has been shown to have emerged after cross-species transmission of one of six host-specific parasites (subgenus Laverania) infecting wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla).
The data indicates that ~1/23 males from the Alto do Juruá could be G6PD deficient and at risk of haemolytic anaemia if treated with primaquine.
A combination of RDT, light microscopy and PCR diagnostics were used to identify asymptomatic malaria infection, providing additional information on asymptomatic cases in addition to the routine statistics on symptomatic cases, so as to determine the true burden of disease in the area.