Genes underlying important phenotypic differences between Plasmodium species, the causative agents of malaria, are frequently found in only a subset of species and cluster at dynamically evolving subtelomeric regions of chromosomes.
Results of this study can be used as a basis for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigations in the effort for search of new and locally affordable antimalarial agents.
PbGFP-Luccon parasites are a straightforward and valuable tool for comprehension of the biological and immunological principles underlying protection against malaria.
Hepcidin is one of the regulators of iron metabolism. The expression of hepcidin is induced in spleens and livers of mice infected with pathogenic bacteria.
In malaria parasites, the systematic experimental validation of drug and vaccine targets by reverse genetics is constrained by the inefficiency of homologous recombination and by the difficulty of manipulating adenine and thymine (A+T)-rich DNA of most Plasmodium species in Escherichia coli.
Using these settings, reinvasion of normal mouse erythrocytes by the parasite was obtained in vitro over two weeks with preservation of the infectivity in vivo.
Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of Momordica balsamina led to the isolation of two new cucurbitane-type triterpenoids, balsaminol F (1) and balsaminoside B (2), along with the known glycosylated cucurbitacins, cucurbita-5,24-diene-3β,23(R)-diol-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3) and kuguaglycoside A (4).
We identified a Plasmodium berghei protein, termed FACT-L, with homology to the SPT16 subunit of FACT. Epitope tagging of FACT-L showed nuclear localization with high expression in the nuclei of (activated) male gametocytes.
Herein, we describe the technique and demonstrate its application in vaccinology and with a range of rodent and human parasite species including Plasmodium yoelii, Plasmodium chabaudi, Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum.
These observations provide a proof-of-concept step for the development of human malaria vaccines based on genetically attenuated blood-stage parasites.