Parasites from the genus Plasmodium, the aetiological agent of malaria in humans, can also infect non-human primates (NHP), increasing the potential risk of zoonotic transmission with its associated global public health concerns. In Colombia, there are no recent studies on Plasmodium spp. infecting free-ranging NHP. Thus, this study aimed to determine the diversity of Plasmodium species circulating in fragmented forests in central Colombia, both in Anopheles mosquitoes and in the four sympatric NHP in the region (Ateles hybridus, Cebus versicolor, Alouatta seniculus and Aotus griseimembra), in order to evaluate the risk of infection to humans associated with the presence of sylvatic hosts and vectors infected with Plasmodium spp.
These results provide evidence of the utility of risk maps to identify environmentally vulnerable areas at a fine spatial resolution in the Urabá‐Bajo Cauca and Alto Sinú region.
Malaria in pregnancy threatens birth outcomes and the health of women and their newborns.
High treatment failure rates for Plasmodium falciparum malaria have been reported in Colombia for chloroquine, amodiaquine, and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine.
In general, the obtained results were contrasting with previous studies in terms of the most abundant and widespread collected species, and regarding infection rates, which were higher than those previously reported.
In the highest malaria areas of Colombia, 13 Anopheles species and four new lineages were found, which highlights the need for updating the species distribution.
G6PDd based on enzymatic activity as well as G6PD A allelic variants were found in malaria-endemic populations on the Pacific coast of Colombia, where most of malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax infections.
Malaria transmission in Colombia is highly variable in space and time. Using a species distribution model, we mapped potential distribution of five vector species including Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles calderoni, Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles neivai, and Anopheles nuneztovari in five Departments of Colombia where malaria transmission remains problematic.
This study provides important information regarding the larval habitats of the main malaria vectors in the most malaria-endemic regions of Colombia, which will be useful in guiding larval control operations.
The study indicates the probable presence of endemic, unstable and low-intensity malaria transmission in Colombian urban and peri-urban areas of a group of municipalities located mainly on the Pacific coast region and a few others in the eastern region.