The fight against malaria faces various biological obstacles, including the resistance of parasites to anti-malarial drugs and the resistance of mosquito vectors to insecticides. The resistance of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) to pyrethroids, the only class of insecticides used to impregnate mosquito nets, is known in Benin; the expansion of this resistance is influenced by the existence of gene flow between species, otherwise by the presence or absence of the kdr mutation in them. The objective of this study is to determine the spatial distribution of An. gambiae and the level of expression of the pyrethroid resistance kdr gene in seven agro-ecological zones of Benin.
Several studies carried out in Benin have shown the involvement of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.), the Anopheles funestus group in malaria transmission, but none of them reported the contribution of the Anopheles nili group to the transmission of this disease. The current study investigated the question through an entomological cross-sectional survey performed in Northern Benin.
This study found no association between frequency of resistance and incidence of clinical malaria in an area where ITNs are the principal form of vector control.
Both the Fludora® Fusion combination and clothianidin alone showed very good and lasting efficacy for IRS against resistant Anopheles with some residual benefit provided by the combination.
Transdisciplinary social science research designs should accompany the implementation of the trial.
This study showed the heterogeneous and various nature of malaria epidemiology in Northern Benin.
This study highlights the link between worse economic conditions and accessibility to medical care as one of the main factors of malaria home treatment and drug purchase in IMPD, even if those two phenomena need to be understood apart.
High folate levels are not associated with increased malarial risk in a prospective longitudinal cohort in the context of both iron and high‐dosed folate supplements and IPTp.
Dispensing practices within the studied pharmacies from Cotonou and Porto-Novo were not in adequacy with the NMCP guidelines for uncomplicated malaria, which is a striking weakness in the training of drug providers on key elements of the guidelines for managing malaria.