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Cambodia

Mechanisms of Resistance: Increased Tolerance to Artemisinin in Plasmodium falciparum Is Mediated by a Quiescence Mechanism

April 20, 2010 - 09:07 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
Benoit Witkowski, Joel Lelièvre, María José López Barragán, Victor Laurent, Xin-zhuan Su, Antoine Berry, and Françoise Benoit-Vical
Reference: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, May 2010, p. 1872-1877, Vol. 54, No. 5

Artemisinin (ART)-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the first-line drugs—and often the last treatments—that can effectively cure Plasmodium falciparum infections. Unfortunately, the decreased clinical efficacy of artesunate, one of the major ART derivatives, was recently reported along the Thailand-Cambodia border.

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Brief Report: High Heritability of Malaria Parasite Clearance Rate Indicates a Genetic Basis for Artemisinin Resistance in Western Cambodia

April 9, 2010 - 17:52 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
Author(s): 
Tim J. C. Anderson, Shalini Nair, Standwell Nkhoma, Jeff T. Williams, Mallika Imwong, Poravuth Yi, Duong Socheat, Debashish Das, Kesinee Chotivanich, Nicholas P. J. Day, Nicholas J. White, and Arjen M. Dondorp
Reference: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2010;201:1326–1330

In western Cambodia, malaria parasites clear slowly from the blood after treatment with artemisinin derivatives, but it is unclear whether this results from parasite, host, or other factors specific to this population.

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Multiple Genetic Backgrounds of the Amplified Plasmodium falciparum Multidrug Resistance (pfmdr1) Gene and Selective Sweep of 184F Mutation in Cambodia

April 8, 2010 - 07:58 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
S Vinayak, MT Alam, R Sem, NK Shah, AI Susanti, P Lim, S Muth, JD Maguire, WO Rogers, T Fandeur, JW Barnwell, AA Escalante, C Wongsrichanalai, F Ariey, SR Meshnick, V Udhayakumar
Reference: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2010;201

The emergence of artesunate‐mefloquine (AS+MQ)–resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the Thailand‐Cambodia region is a major concern for malaria control.

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Open Access | Origin and Evolution of Sulfadoxine Resistant Plasmodium falciparum

April 8, 2010 - 07:48 -- Kabogo Ndegwa
Author(s): 
S Vinayak, MT Alam, T Mixson-Hayden, AM McCollum, R Sem, NK Shah, P Lim, S Muth, WO Rogers, T Fandeur, JW Barnwell, AA Escalante, C Wongsrichanalai, F Ariey, SR Meshnick, V Udhayakumar
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog (2010) 6: e1000830

The Thailand-Cambodia border is the epicenter for drug-resistant falciparum malaria. Previous studies have shown that chloroquine (CQ) and pyrimethamine resistance originated in this region and eventually spread to other Asian countries and Africa.

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Reviews: Artemisinin resistance: current status and scenarios for containment

March 18, 2010 - 13:31 -- Patrick Sampao
Author(s): 
Arjen M. Dondorp, Shunmay Yeung, Lisa White, Chea Nguon, Nicholas P.J. Day, Duong Socheat, Lorenz von Seidlein
Reference: 
Nature Reviews Microbiology 8 March 2010

Artemisinin combination therapies are the first-line treatments for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in most malaria-endemic countries. Recently, partial artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum malaria has emerged on the Cambodia–Thailand border.

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Open Access | Rapid and effective malaria control in Cambodia through mass administration of artemisinin-piperaquine

February 23, 2010 - 12:02 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
Author(s): 
Jianping Song, Duong Socheat, Bo Tan, Prak Dara, Changsheng Deng, Sreng Sokunthea, Suon Seila, Fengzhen Ou, Huaxiang Jian, Guoqiao Li
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2010, 9:57 (23 February 2010)

This is an important paper which demonstrates the utility of a mass drug treatment approach to malaria control in areas of relatively high transmission in south-western Cambodia.

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