The proportion of the VK247 subtype in Myanmar was 43.1% (n=25) among 58 positive cases by serodiagnosis and 25.6% (n=24) among 94 positive cases by genetic diagnosis. In both diagnostic methods, the infection status of malaria patients is highly diverse with respect to malaria species, and multiple clonal infections are prevalent in Myanmar.
Extensive genetic polymorphism with diverse allele types was identified in MSP-1 and MSP-2 in P. falciparum field isolates from Myanmar. A high level of mixed infections was also observed, as was a high degree of multiplicity of infection.
These results have significant implications in understanding the nature of P. vivax population circulating in Myanmar as well as providing useful information for malaria vaccine development based on this antigen.
Microsatellite analysis is a useful tool for mapping short-term outbreaks of malaria and for predicting ancestry.