Of the three RDTs, the CSPfPan test was the most consistent and reliable, rendering it appropriate for this P. vivax predominant region.
Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum genes pfcrt and pfmdr1 are selected by amodiaquine treatment in Africa.
Chloroquine remains an efficacious treatment for the treatment of vivax malaria in Afghanistan. In a setting where radical therapy cannot be administered, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine provides additional benefit in terms of post-treatment prophylaxis, reducing the incidence of recurrence from 4-8 weeks after treatment. Trial Registration The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT00682578.
The present study shows a limited polymorphism in pvdhfr from Afghan isolates and provides important basic information to establish an epidemiological map of drug-resistant vivax malaria, and updating guidelines for anti-malarial policy in Afghanistan.
The paper provides an important contribution to information about malaria control in complex humanitarian settings, which is lacking in the current literature, as well as demonstrates the ability to conduct operational research in very restrained circumstances.