Insecticide resistance of Anopheles stephensi, the main malaria vector in eastern Afghanistan, has been reported previously. This study describes the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of resistance to facilitate effective vector control and insecticide resistance management.
Malaria was eliminated in Tajikistan by the beginning of the 1960s. However, sporadic introduced cases of malaria occurred subsequently probably as a result of transmission from infected mosquito Anopheles flying over river the Punj from the border areas of Afghanistan.
Based on the results, the reported resistance to pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides, and tolerance to bendiocarb in the Kunar and Nangarhar populations of An. stephensi from Afghanistan are likely to be caused by a range of metabolic mechanisms, including esterases, P450s and GSTs combined with target site insensitivity in AChE.
These data confirm maintained efficacy 10 years after introduction of artesunate plus SP as combination treatment of P. falciparum in Afghanistan.
Given the low malaria risk and reported avoidance of medication during pregnancy, intermittent preventive treatment is hard to justify or implement.
In spite of the decreasing compliance with chemoprophylaxis, suggesting a low perception of the risk of malaria, this study confirmed the good tolerability of mefloquine in the military.
Prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Afghanistan varies considerably by ethnic group and is predominantly of the Mediterranean type.
Location: Kabul, Afghanistan
Artesunate plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP) is now first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum infection in several south Asian countries, including Afghanistan. Molecular studies provide a sensitive means to investigate the current state of drug susceptibility to the SP component, and can also provide information on the likely efficacy of other potential forms of artemisinin-combination therapy.
To assess the accuracy of malaria diagnosis and treatment at primary level clinics in Afghanistan