To implement future malaria elimination strategies in French Guiana, a characterization of the infectious reservoir is recommended. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between October and December 2017 in the French Guianese municipality of St Georges de l’Oyapock, located along the Brazilian border. The prevalence of Plasmodium spp. was determined using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
This investigation of a suspicious malaria epidemic confirms the importance of malaria among illegal gold miners.
Suriname has successfully reduced malaria to near-elimination level in the last 17 years. However, the high malaria import rate resulting from cross-border moving migrants is a major challenge for reaching elimination. This requires continued investment in the national health system, with a focus on border screening and migrant health. A regional approach to malaria elimination within the Guianas and Brazil is urgently needed.
There were no significant differences between primaquine at 15 or 30 mg/day for 14 days in the prevention of P. vivax relapses at 2, 3 and 6 months after primaquine treatment in French Guiana.
Few P. vivax isolates harboring chloroquine-resistant mutations in the pvmdr1 gene are circulating in French Guiana.
Local variation in the density of Anopheles mosquitoes and the risk of exposure to bites are essential to explain the spatial and temporal heterogeneities in the transmission of malaria.
This significant malaria reservoir in a mobile and illegal population with difficult access to a health care system raises the threat of artemisinin resistance and puts the population of the Guiana Shield at risk of new transmission foci while countries of the region aim at malaria elimination.
French Guianan Noir Marron population represents a pool of Rh-D antigen positive, Duffy-negative and G6PD-deficient erythrocytes, the latter accounting for one in every eight persons.
Illegal gold mining activities are challenging the control of malaria in French Guiana.
Clinicians must be more vigilant regarding mixed infections in co-endemic P. falciparum/P. vivax areas, in order to deliver optimal care for patients suffering from malaria.