Primaquine is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for radical treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria. This drug is known to provoke acute hemolytic anemia in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Due to lack of data on G6PD deficiency, the use of primaquine has been limited in Africa. In the present study, G6PD deficiency was investigated in blood donors of various ethnic groups living in Nouakchott, a P. vivax endemic area in Mauritania.
The results of the present study support the stratification of malaria in Mauritania. However, the Sahelian zone had the lowest malaria prevalence, while the Sahelo-Saharan zone had the highest malaria burden.
Malaria has become a major public health problem in Mauritania since the 1990s, with an average of 181,000 cases per year and 2,233,066 persons at risk during 1995–2012.
The polymorphism of P. falciparum populations from Mauritania was high. Infection with multiple P. falciparum clones was observed, as well as a high multiplicity of infection reflecting both the high endemicity level and malaria transmission in Mauritania.
We conducted a multipurpose cross-sectional survey in the city of Kaedi in April 2011 (dry season), assessing three major disease patterns, including malaria. Plasmodium spp. parasite rates were tested among children aged 6--59 months who were recruited from a random selection of households using a rapid diagnostic test and microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films.
Results of the present study indicate that malaria is endemic in Nouakchott and that P. vivax is the principal causative agent.
This study presents the Duffy blood group polymorphisms in Nouakchott City and demonstrates that in Mauritania, P. vivax is able to infect Duffy-negative patients.
This study reports for the first time on the distribution, host preference and infection rates of malaria vectors in Mauritania.