Overall quality of malaria microscopy diagnosis was poor and a significant gap in this service was observed that could impact on its diagnostic services.
In relative terms, the overall positivity rate of malaria in the area over 17 years showed a significant reduction, but its magnitude as a public health problem is still alarming.
Splenomegaly and parasitaemia are not good measures to show variations in the levels of malaria transmission in reduced and/or low endemic settings.
Behavioural, socio-cultural, economic and ecological conditions coupled with deficiencies in perceived bed net design and distribution policies; weak education, communication and social support structures were important in understanding and accounting for why a low level of intended use and a rampant misuse and repurposed use in Adami Tullu community of Ethiopia.
Malaria is the leading public health problem in Ethiopia where over 75% of the land surface is at risk with varying intensities depending on altitude and season.
It would appear that the higher dose of propoxur and pirimiphos-methyl correspond best to the Ethiopian transmission season, although interactions between insecticide and the substrate should be taken into account as well.
Data generated by this study will strengthen the National Malaria Control Programme’s insecticide resistance management strategy to safeguard continued efficacy of IRS and other malaria control methods in Ethiopia.
The low level of reported knowledge on net care and repair, as well as the low level of reported positive perception towards net repair need to be addressed.
Results showed strong evidence that household proximity to vector breeding site is positively associated with P. vivax infection in rural Ethiopia, and that this association is constant across age groups.
The study highlighted a rich diversity of indigenous anti-malarial medicinal plants with equally divergent herbal remedy preparation and use pattern in Ethiopia.