Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasite is still known to be one of the most significant public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic diversity of the Sudanese P. falciparum based on the diversity in the circumsporozoite surface protein (PfCSP) has not been previously studied. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of the N-terminal region of the pfcsp gene.
Plasmodium vivax infection is rising in sub-Saharan Africa, where Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for more than 90% of malaria cases. While P. vivax is identified as a major cause of severe and cerebral malaria in South east Asia, the Pacific and South America, most of the severe and cerebral cases in Africa were attributed to P. falciparum. Cases of severe malaria due to P. vivax are emerging in Africa. A few severe P. vivax cases were reported in Eastern Sudan and they were underestimated due to the lack of accurate diagnosis, low parasitaemia and seldom use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs).
The present study aimed to evaluate the management of severe malaria at Gezira State hospitals in Sudan by assessing hospital readiness, health care provider knowledge and the care received by severe malaria patients.
This is the first pvdbp genetic diversity study from an African country. Sudanese isolates display high haplotype diversity and the gene is under selective pressure.
The present study reveals that minor populations of An. arabiensis larval forms are adapted to breed in polluted urban habitats, which further influenced susceptibility to Temephos, especially for the melanic larval forms.
During the study, there was a high prevalence of placental malaria in Blue Nile State-Sudan, as the enhanced control activities were not practiced, leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as maternal anaemia and LBW.
DHA–PPQ is an efficacious ACT and candidate for replacement of first-line treatment in Sudan while AS/SP showed high treatment failure rate and must be replaced.
The findings of this study call for a need to review the Sudan malaria treatment policy.
This study was conducted to determine the malaria parasite density among children using actual white blood cell (WBC) and the assumed WBC counts (8.0 × 109/l).
Overall, ACT knowledge among frontline health care providers is very poor.