Malaria in India, while decreasing, remains a serious public health problem, and the contribution of submicroscopic and asymptomatic infections to its persistence is poorly understood. We conducted community surveys and clinic studies at three sites in India differing in their eco-epidemiologies: Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Nadiad (Gujarat), and Rourkela (Odisha), during 2012-2015. A total of 6,645 subject blood samples were collected for Plasmodium diagnosis by microscopy and PCR, and an extensive clinical questionnaire completed.
Exploratory spatial analysis identified a number of potential malaria hotspots at all three sites. There is a considerable burden of submicroscopic and asymptomatic malaria in malarious regions in India, which may act as a reservoir with implications for malaria elimination strategies.
Duffy blood group antigens serve as receptors for Plasmodium vivax invasion into erythrocytes, and they are determined by polymorphisms of the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC), also known as Fy glycoprotein (FY). Duffy negativity, i.e., absence of the antigens, protects against P. vivax infection and is rare among non-African populations. However, data on DARC polymorphisms and their impact on Plasmodium infection in India are scarce.
MAGNet LN showed extended wash resistance retaining its bio-efficacy up to 25 washes and met the WHOPES requirement of passing Phase II evaluation.
Many human parasites and pathogens have closely related counterparts among non-human primates.
This field study, in a tribal district of India, after distribution of deltamethrin-impregnated LLINs showed decrease in deltamethrin susceptibility in An. culicifacies, a major vector of malaria in this study area and in India. Results indicated development of resistance as imminent with the increase in insecticide selection pressure.
Like malaria in mainland India, malaria in Meghalaya is complex, with both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasites in circulation, multiple Anopheles vector species, and reports of both unusual and severe malaria syndromes across all age groups.
LifeNet, a deltamethrin incorporated long-lasting insecticidal (polypropylene) net (LLIN), was qualified by the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) for Phase-II trial in India.
This small pilot trial supports the effectiveness of the currently recommended lower dose (0.25 mg/kg/day) 14 day PQ regimen for the radical cure of vivax malaria in South India.
In this study, uncomplicated cases of malaria predominated, with P. falciparum causing slightly more intense manifestation.