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Tanzania

Not Open Access | Increase of dose associated with decrease in protection against controlled human malaria infection by PfSPZ Vaccine in Tanzanian adults

December 2, 2019 - 15:12 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Jongo SA, Church LWP, Hoffman SL, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Nov 29. pii: ciz1152

A vaccine would be an ideal tool for reducing malaria’s impact. PfSPZ Vaccine (radiation attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum [Pf] sporozoites [SPZ]) has been well tolerated and safe in >1,526 malaria-naïve and experienced 6-month to 65-year-olds in the U.S., Europe, and Africa. When vaccine efficacy (VE) of 5 doses of 2.7x105 PfSPZ of PfSPZ Vaccine was assessed in adults against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) in the U.S. and Tanzania and intense field transmission of heterogeneous Pf in Mali, Tanzanians had the lowest VE (20%).

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Evaluation of malaria microscopy diagnostic performance at private health facilities in Tanzania

December 2, 2019 - 14:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ngasala B, Bushukatale S.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal volume 18, 375 (2019)

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends use of parasitological diagnosis of malaria for all age groups in all malaria transmission settings. Many private health facilities rely on malaria microscopy for malaria diagnosis. However, quality of malaria microscopy is affected by number of factors including availability of skilled laboratory microscopists and lack of quality assurance systems in many malaria endemic countries. This study was carried out to assess quality of malaria microscopy in selected private health facilities in Tanzania.

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The potential of pregnant women as a sentinel population for malaria surveillance

November 30, 2019 - 12:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Brunner NC, Chacky F, Hetzel MW, et al.
Reference: 
Malar J. 2019 Nov 21;18(1):370

With increasing spatial heterogeneity of malaria transmission and a shift of the disease burden towards older children and adults, pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) have been proposed as a pragmatic sentinel population for malaria surveillance. However, the representativeness of routine ANC malaria test-positivity and its relationship with prevalence in other population subgroups are yet to be investigated. 

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Operational Coverage and Timeliness of Reactive Case Detection for Malaria Elimination in Zanzibar, Tanzania

November 27, 2019 - 16:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tina van der Horst, Abdul-wahid Al-mafazy, Bakar Shariff Fakih, Logan Stuck, Abdullah Ali, Joshua Yukich and Manuel W. Hetzel
Reference: 
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 00(0), 2019, pp. 1–9

Since 2012, the Zanzibar Malaria Elimination Program has been implementing reactive case detection (RACD). Health facility (HF) staff send individual malaria case notifications by using mobile phones, triggering a review of HF records and malaria testing and treatment at the household level by a district malaria surveillance officer. We assessed the completeness and timeliness of this system, from case notification to household-level response. We reviewed two years (2015–2016) of primary register information in 40 randomly selected HFs on Zanzibar’s two islands Unguja and Pemba and database records of case notifications from all registered HFs for the period 2013–16.

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Diagnostic performance of CareStart™ malaria HRP2/pLDH test in comparison with standard microscopy for detection of uncomplicated malaria infection among symptomatic patients, Eastern Coast of Tanzania

November 11, 2019 - 16:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
George M. Bwire, Billy Ngasala, Manase Kilonzi, Wigilya P. Mikomangwa, Fatuma F. Felician and Appolinary A. R. Kamuhabwa
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:354, 5 November 2019

CareStart™ malaria HRP2/pLDH (Pf/pan) combo test is one of the several rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) approved for diagnosis of malaria at the point of care in Tanzania. However, there are limited studies on the diagnostic performance of RDT after wide scale use in primary health care facilities in Tanzania. 

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Farmers’ pesticide usage practices in the malaria endemic region of North-Western Tanzania: implications to the control of malaria vectors

November 8, 2019 - 16:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Anitha Philbert, Sylvester Leonard Lyantagaye & Gamba Nkwengulila
Reference: 
BMC Public Health volume 19, Article number: 1456 (2019)

Pesticides remain the mainstay for the control of agricultural pests and disease vectors. However, their indiscriminate use in agriculture has led to development of resistance to both crop pests and disease vectors. 

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Detection of malaria parasites in dried human blood spots using mid-infrared spectroscopy and logistic regression analysis

October 8, 2019 - 15:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Emmanuel P. Mwanga, Elihaika G. Minja, Fredros O. Okumu, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:341, 7 October 2019

Epidemiological surveys of malaria currently rely on microscopy, polymerase chain reaction assays (PCR) or rapid diagnostic test kits for Plasmodium infections (RDTs). This study investigated whether mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy coupled with supervised machine learning could constitute an alternative method for rapid malaria screening, directly from dried human blood spots.

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Bio-efficacy and wash resistance of MAGNet long-lasting insecticidal net against wild populations of Anopheles funestus in experimental huts in Muheza, Tanzania

October 7, 2019 - 15:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Eliningaya J. Kweka, Patrick K. Tungu, Aneth M. Mahande, Humphrey D. Mazigo, Subira Sayumwe, Shandala Msangi, Lucile Lyaruu, John Waweru, William Kisinza and James Wangai
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:335, 1 October 2019

The decline in malaria cases and vectors is major milestone in fighting against malaria. The efficacy of MAGNet long-lasting insecticidal nets (MAGNet LLIN), an alpha-cypermethrin incorporated long-lasting net, with the target dose ± 25% of 5.8 g active ingredient (AI)/kg (4.35–7.25 g AI/kg) was evaluated in six veranda-trap experimental huts in Muheza, Tanzania against freely flying wild population of Anopheles funestus.

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The impact on malaria of biannual treatment with azithromycin in children age less than 5 years: a prospective study

August 27, 2019 - 22:00 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Evan M. Bloch, Beatriz Munoz, Zakayo Mrango, Jerusha Weaver, Leonard E. G. Mboera, Tom M. Lietman, David J. Sullivan Jr. and Sheila K. West
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:284, 23 August 2019

The MORDOR study, a cluster randomized clinical trial, showed that single-dose azithromycin (20 mg/kg) administered biannually for 2 years to preschool children reduced mortality; a study was conducted to determine its effect on clinical symptomatic episodes of malaria as a potential mechanism for mortality benefit.

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Assessment of the impact of availability and readiness of malaria services on uptake of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) provided during ANC visits in Tanzania

July 12, 2019 - 16:27 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Shraddha Bajaria, Charles Festo, Sigilbert Mrema, Josephine Shabani, Ellen Hertzmark and Ramadhani Abdul
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:229, 9 July 2019

Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) is a highly-recommended intervention to prevent maternal and neonatal complications associated with malaria infection. Despite fairly high antenatal care (ANC) coverage in Tanzania, low IPTp uptake rates represent a gap in efforts to decrease complications attributed to malaria in pregnancy. The objective of this study was to examine if availability, readiness and managing authority are associated with uptake of IPTp during ANC.

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