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Kenya

HIV infection drives IgM and IgG3 subclass bias in Plasmodium falciparum-specific and total immunoglobulin concentration in Western Kenya

September 10, 2019 - 15:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Eliud O. Odhiambo, Dibyadyuti Datta, Bernard Guyah, George Ayodo, Bartholomew N. Ondigo, Benard O. Abong’o, Chandy C. John and Anne E. P. Frosch
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:297, 30 August 2019

HIV infection is associated with more frequent and severe episodes of malaria and may be the result of altered malaria-specific B cell responses. However, it is poorly understood how HIV and the associated lymphopenia and immune activation affect malaria-specific antibody responses.

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Using sibship reconstructions to understand the relationship between larval habitat productivity and oviposition behaviour in Kenyan Anopheles arabiensis

August 27, 2019 - 22:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joel O. Odero, Ulrike Fillinger, Emily J. Rippon, Daniel K. Masiga and David Weetman
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:286, 23 August 2019

Strategies for combatting residual malaria by targeting vectors outdoors are gaining importance as the limitations of primary indoor interventions are reached. Strategies to target ovipositing females or her offspring are broadly applicable because all mosquitoes require aquatic habitats for immature development irrespective of their biting or resting preferences. Oviposition site selection by gravid females is frequently studied by counting early instar larvae in habitats; an approach which is valid only if the number of larvae correlates with the number of females laying eggs. This hypothesis was tested against the alternative, that a higher abundance of larvae results from improved survival of a similar or fewer number of families.

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Bed net care practices and associated factors in western Kenya

August 19, 2019 - 17:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ellen M. Santos, Jenna E. Coalson, Elizabeth T. Jacobs, Yann C. Klimentidis, Stephen Munga, Maurice Agawo, Elizabeth Anderson, Nancy Stroupe and Kacey C. Ernst
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:274, 14 August 2019

Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are effective for malaria prevention and are designed to provide nearly 5 years of mosquito protection. However, many ITNs and LLINs become damaged and ineffective for mosquito bite prevention within 1 to 2 years in field conditions. Non-adherence to recommended bed net care and repair practices may partially explain this shortened net longevity.

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Community-based intermittent mass testing and treatment for malaria in an area of high transmission intensity, western Kenya: development of study site infrastructure and lessons learned

July 30, 2019 - 08:25 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Norbert Awino Odero, Aaron M. Samuels, Meghna Desai, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:255, 29 July 2019

Malaria transmission is high in western Kenya and the asymptomatic infected population plays a significant role in driving the transmission. Mathematical modelling and simulation programs suggest that interventions targeting asymptomatic infections through mass testing and treatment (MTaT) or mass drug administration (MDA) have the potential to reduce malaria transmission when combined with existing interventions.

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Diagnostic dose determination and efficacy of chlorfenapyr and clothianidin insecticides against Anopheles malaria vector populations of western Kenya

July 21, 2019 - 21:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Silas Agumba, John E. Gimnig, Lilian Ogonda, Maurice Ombok, Jackline Kosgei, Stephen Munga, Benard Guyah, Seline Omondi and Eric Ochomo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:243, 17 July 2019

Malaria vector control is dependent on chemical insecticides applied to walls by indoor residual spraying or on long-lasting insecticidal nets. The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in major malaria vectors may compromise malaria control and elimination efforts. The aim of this study was to estimate a diagnostic dose for chlorfenapyr (class: pyrrole) and clothianidin (class: neonicotinoid) and assess the baseline susceptibility of three major Anopheles malaria vectors of western Kenya to these two insecticides.

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Epidemiological risk factors for clinical malaria infection in the highlands of Western Kenya

July 1, 2019 - 15:31 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Walters M. Essendi, Anne M. Vardo-Zalik, Eugenia Lo, Maxwell G. Machani, Guofa Zhou, Andrew K. Githeko, Guiyun Yan and Yaw A. Afrane
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:211, 24 June 2019

Understanding the complex heterogeneity of risk factors that can contribute to an increased risk of malaria at the individual and household level will enable more effective use of control measures. The objective of this study was to understand individual and household factors that influence clinical malaria infection among individuals in the highlands of Western Kenya.

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Influence of blood meal and age of mosquitoes on susceptibility to pyrethroids in Anopheles gambiae from Western Kenya

April 4, 2019 - 15:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Maxwell G. Machani, Eric Ochomo, David Sang, Mariangela Bonizzoni, Guofa Zhou, Andrew K. Githeko, Guiyun Yan and Yaw A. Afrane
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:112, 2 April 2019

The results showed that mosquito age and blood feeding status confers increased tolerance to insecticides as blood feeding may be playing an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin, allowing mosquitoes to rest on insecticide-treated materials despite treatment.

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NOT Open Access | Antimalarial bednet protection of children disappears when shared by three or more people in a high transmission setting of western Kenya

March 6, 2019 - 13:28 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Brenda Solórzano García, Amanda D. Melin, Filippo Aureli, Gerardo Pérez Ponce de León
Reference: 
Parasitology, Volume 146 / Issue 3, March 2019, pp 356 - 362

A sizeable proportion of households is forced to share single long-lasting insecticide treated net (LLIN).

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NOT Open Access | Mapping potential Anopheles gambiae s.l. larval distribution using remotely sensed climatic and environmental variables in Baringo, Kenya

November 7, 2018 - 14:46 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
J. A. Amadi, G. O. Ong'amo, D. O. Olago, S. O. Oriaso, I. K. Nyamongo, B. B. A. Estambale
Reference: 
Medical and Veterinary Entomology Volume32, Issue4 December 2018 Pages 417-426

Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) is responsible for the transmission of the devastating Plasmodium falciparum (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) strain of malaria in Africa.

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Selective sweeps and genetic lineages of Plasmodium falciparum multi-drug resistance (pfmdr1) gene in Kenya

October 31, 2018 - 15:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Peninah Muiruri, Denis W. Juma, Edwin Kamau, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2018 17:398, 30 October 2018

Selection pressures were observed to be different in different regions of Kenya, especially the western region compared to the coastal region.

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