Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque) is the most widespread species of macaque in Southeast Asia and the only species of monkey found naturally in the Philippines. The species is the natural host for the zoonotic malaria species, Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium cynomolgi and for the potentially zoonotic species, Plasmodium inui. Moreover, other Plasmodium species such as Plasmodium coatneyi and Plasmodium fieldi are also natural parasites of M. fascicularis. The aims of this study were to identify and determine the prevalence of Plasmodium species infecting wild and captive long-tailed macaques from the Philippines.
The emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium vivax poses problems for malaria control and elimination in some parts of the world, especially in developing countries where individuals are routinely exposed to the infection.
Photovoice is an effective method for re-imaging malaria.
The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of these activities on the self-implemented preventive measures against malaria by the ex-patients of the microscopists.
Microscopists' capacity was identified as a significant factor in community awareness-raising activities for malaria prevention.
Strategies that contributed to an improved efficiency and sustainability of vector control operations were: micro-stratification, integration of vector control within the health sector, a multi-disease approach, involvement of local authorities, and empowerment of communities.
Saliva is a promising diagnostic fluid for malaria when protein degradation and matrix effects are mitigated.