These results could have an impact on vector infection and transmission dynamics in areas where Anopheles transmit both parasites, i.e., the elimination of filarial worms in a co-endemic locale could enhance malaria transmission.
Papua New Guinea
Surveillance for Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance mutations is becoming an established tool for assessing antimalarial treatment effectiveness.
We developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–based assay specific for known species-specific nucleotide differences in the internal transcribed spacer 2 region and identified the five species most frequently implicated in transmitting disease (An. punctulatus, An. koliensis, An. farauti 1, An. hinesorum, and An. farauti 4).
Here we follow the evolution of the rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I subunit in the malaria mosquito Anopheles longirostris from Papua New Guinea (PNG).
The degree of similarity between findings from the acceptability studies undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa and PNG allows some generalization relating to the implementation of IPTi outside of Africa:
The qPCR assay developed proved optimal for detection of all four Plasmodium species.
The study used World Health Organization standard susceptibility bioassays to detect knockdown phenotypes and a novel nested polymerase chain reaction to detect the knockdown resistant (kdr) allele in these vectors.
The observed population genetics of P. falciparum in this region is likely to be a consequence of the high transmission intensity combined with the isolation of human and vector populations, especially those located inland and migration of parasites via human movement into coastal populations.
Simply bringing health services closer to where people live may not always result in a greater use of formal health care facilities.
Over a century ago, the malaria expedition of the brilliant microbiologist Robert Koch to the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and German New Guinea (now Papua New Guinea, or PNG), resulted in profound observations that are still central to our current understanding of the epidemiology and acquisition of immunity to the malaria parasite Plasmodium.