This study is the first to document the high prevalence of submicroscopic malaria infections among pregnant women in Haiti and identify social and behavioural risk factors for disease transmission.
Results suggest a decrease of chloroquine susceptibility for treatment of P. falciparum malaria cases in southern Haiti.
Given the lack of historical evidence of P. vivax infections on the island of Hispaniola, the sparse serological evidence of antibodies toward P. vivax identified in the current study further support the notion that the transmission of P. vivax malaria might be extremely low or even completely absent in Haiti.
Entomological information generated from past studies in Haiti will contribute to the development of strategies to achieve malaria elimination on Hispaniola.
The qRT-PCR assay is sufficiently sensitive to identify an unexpectedly large number of asymptomatic, submicroscopic infections.
We report one laboratory-confirmed coinfection by dengue type 4 and Plasmodium falciparum imported to Spain from Haiti.
Malaria remains endemic in 21 countries of the American continent with an estimated 427,000 cases per year.
These findings suggest that despite the absence of sustained malaria control efforts in Haiti, transmission has remained relatively low over multiple decades.
The presence of the Y184F mutation in pfmdr1 of P. falciparum parasites in Haiti may have implications for resistance to antimalarial drugs.
Among 49 patients with falciparum malaria, we found neither parasites carrying haplotypes associated with chloroquine resistance nor instances of chloroquine treatment failure.