This study is the first report of phenotypic difference between PkDBPαII haplotypes.
Anopheles cracens has been incriminated as the vector of human knowlesi malaria in peninsular Malaysia.
This study revealed the existence of three Pknbpxa types in Malaysia. Types 1 and 2 were found not only in Malaysian Borneo (Sarawak and Sabah) but also in Peninsular Malaysia.
Malaysia has a national goal to eliminate malaria by 2020. Understanding the genetic diversity of malaria parasites in residual transmission foci can provide invaluable information which may inform the intervention strategies used to reach elimination targets.
The presence of triple and quintuple mutation combination suggest that the P. vivax isolates exhibit a high degree of resistant to sulfadoxine, pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination therapy.
Plasmodium ovale is rare and not exactly known to be autochthonous in Malaysia.
This study has provided evidence to elucidate the presence of transmission of malaria parasites among the local macaques in Hulu Selangor.
In the present study, only An. introlatus was positive for oocysts. Kernel Density analysis showed that P. knowlesi hotspot areas overlapped with areas where the infected An. introlatus was discovered. This further strengthens the hypothesis that An. introlatusis is the vector for P. knowlesi in the Hulu Selangor district.
In addition to Sabah and Sarawak, which have been known for high prevalence of P. knowlesi infection, the findings from this study highlight the widespread distribution of P. knowlesi in many Peninsular Malaysia states.
Partnering with the commercial sector has been an essential operational strategy to support malaria elimination in Sabah.