Emerging Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine (CQ) may undermine malaria elimination efforts in South America. CQ-resistant P. vivax has been found in the major port city of Manaus but not in the main malaria hot spots across the Amazon Basin of Brazil, where CQ is routinely coadministered with primaquine (PQ) for radical cure of vivax malaria. Here we randomly assigned 204 uncomplicated vivax malaria patients from Juruá Valley, northwestern Brazil, to receive either sequential (arm 1) or concomitant (arm 2) CQ-PQ treatment.
In spite of low vector competence of Ny. darlingi to P. vivax, parasite propagation in the human population is enhanced by the high human-biting rate, and relatively high vectorial capacity.
While the data indicate that changes in landscape due to human activities lead to a reduction in An. cruzii abundance, such changes may increase the contact rate between this species and humans living on the edges of forest fragments where An. cruzii is found.
High ownership and retention of the LLINs was observed in the intervention group.
MG-LAMP is a sensitive and specific assay that may be useful for the detection of malaria parasites in remote healthcare settings.
Malaria transmission in South America is overwhelmingly located in the Amazon region with limited cases outside that biome.
Habitat modification may facilitate the emergence of novel pathogens, and the expansion of agricultural frontiers make domestic animals important sources of pathogen spillover to wild animals.
Molecular diagnostic using mt-qPCR was effective in revealing infected potential donors with good perspectives to be applied as screening routine of asymptomatic carriers for preventing transfusion-transmitted malaria in blood banks.
This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of all three regimens that were tested with 42-day cure rates that meet World Health Organization criteria.
These findings strengthen support for the hypothesis that in the Atlantic Forest, and especially in the state with the highest frequency of bromeliad-malaria in Brazil, parasites with similar molecular backgrounds are shared by humans and simians.