Understanding the contribution of outdoor-resting Anopheles mosquitoes to residual malaria transmission is important in terms of scaling up vector control towards malaria elimination in South Africa. The aim of this project was to assess the potential role of Anopheles parensis and other Anopheles species in residual malaria transmission, using sentinel surveillance sites in the uMkhanyakude District of northern KwaZulu-Natal Province.
To reduce onward falciparum malaria transmission, the World Health Organization recommends adding single low-dose (SLD) primaquine to artemisinin-based combination treatment in low transmission areas. However, uptake of this recommendation has been relatively slow given concerns about whether individual risks justify potential community benefit. This study was undertaken to generate comprehensive local data on the risk–benefit profile of SLD primaquine deployment in a pre-elimination area in South Africa.
Indoor residual spraying (IRS), the coating of interior walls of houses with insecticides, is common in malaria-endemic areas. While important in malaria control, IRS potentially exposes residents to harmful insecticides. The World Health Organization recommends steps to minimize exposure; however, no programme has focused on educating populations.
The critical self-evaluation of programme performance has allowed the KZN malaria programme to plan to address key issues moving forward.
The 24-h mobile reporting system is user friendly and trained healthcare workers are willing to use the system, despite network limitations.
It was concluded that although risk communication on malaria prevention and treatment in young children should be aimed at caregivers, an age and culture appropriate song about malaria could be developed to help young children protect themselves.
Most participants were not positive that South Africa could achieve the malaria elimination goal by 2018, citing the high cross-border movements and lack of resources as key barriers.
Malar J. 2016; 15: 419.
Published online 2016 Aug 18. doi: 10.1186/s12936-016-1470-8
Towards malaria elimination in the MOSASWA (Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland) region
Devanand Moonasar, Rajendra Maharaj, Simon Kunene, Baltazar Candrinho, Francisco Saute, Nyasatu Ntshalintshali, and Natashia Morris corresponding author.
South Africa and Swaziland benefitted from the LSDI and were able to sustain malaria control and progress to the stage of elimination.
A predictive model based on environmental factors would be useful in the effort towards malaria elimination by fostering appropriate targeting of control measures and allocating of resources.