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Africa

Not Open Access | Microscopic Plasmodium falciparum Gametocytemia and Infectivity to Mosquitoes in Cambodia

March 31, 2016 - 15:14 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Jessica T. Lin, Ratawan Ubalee, David L. Saunders, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. (2016) 213 (9): 1491-1494.

To see whether the same is true in Southeast Asia, we determined the infectiousness of 119 falciparum-infected Cambodian adults to Anopheles dirus mosquitoes by membrane feeding. 

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When will permanent methods be added by PMI?

March 11, 2016 - 14:43 -- William Jobin

In a recent analysis of the US Presidential Malaria Initiative (PMI) by Richard Oxborough, it was pointed out that indoor spraying is being reduced and even abandoned as a control measure because of resistance to the cheaper insecticides. In Angola, they have completely abandoned indoor spraying as a method. The newer insecticides are too expensive.

It is alarming that now the only effective control method available is drugs. What will happen when drug resistance spreads? Is PMI prepared for this?

Insecticide Resistance in African Anopheles Mosquitoes: A Worsening Situation that Needs Urgent Action to Maintain Malaria Control

February 23, 2016 - 14:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hilary Ranson, Natalie Lissenden
Reference: 
Trends in Parasitology, Volume 32, Issue 3, March 2016, Pages 187-196

This review provides an update on the current status of resistance to the major insecticide classes in African malaria vectors, considers the evidence that this resistance is already compromising malaria control efforts, and looks to the future to highlight some of the new insecticide-based tools under development and the challenges in ensuring they are most effectively deployed to manage resistance.

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Intramuscular Artesunate for Severe Malaria in African Children: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

February 8, 2016 - 16:45 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Peter G. Kremsner, Akim A. Adegnika, Sanjeev Krishna, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med 13(1): e1001938

A simplified three-dose i.m. regimen for severe malaria in African children is non-inferior to the more complex WHO-recommended regimen.

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Is genetic modification of anophelines the way to start elimination of malaria?

January 27, 2016 - 18:48 -- William Jobin

From the recent reports out of California and other places, it appears that anophelines can be genetically modified so that (1) they are no longer susceptible to plasmodium infections, and (2) their progeny will be all males! If this can be developed for field use, it looks to me like it is the Beginning of the End of malaria in Africa. But I am an engineer with no experience in genetics. Do you think that this technique can be developed for field application?

Help me - Was 2015 the beginning of the End?

December 30, 2015 - 15:34 -- William Jobin

A recent report from a laboratory in California offers the hope for a method of genetic modification which could lead to species elimination from large geographical areas, such as Anopheles gambiae elimination from Africa. To quote the New York Times Science section of 22 December, “A gene drive designed to render a population extinct is known as a crash drive. A crash drive being developed for mosquitoes consists of a gene engineered into the Y chromosome that shreds the X chromosome in the cells that make the mosquito’s sperm, thus ensuring that all progeny are male.

Does extreme asymmetric dominance promote hybridization between Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae s.s. in seasonal malaria mosquito communities of West Africa?

November 16, 2015 - 14:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Niang A, Epopa P, Sawadogo S, Maïga H, Konaté L, Faye O, Dabiré R, Tripet F, Diabaté A
Reference: 
Parasites & Vectors 2015, 8 :586 (11 November 2015)

These data suggest that ecological conditions leading to rare An. gambiae s.s. in populations dominated by An. coluzzii may promote a breakdown of spatial swarm segregation and assortative mating between the two species. 

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Not Open Access | Targeting glutamine metabolism rescues mice from late-stage cerebral malaria

October 27, 2015 - 07:25 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Emile B. Gordon, Geoffrey T. Hart, Susan K. Pierce, et al.
Reference: 
PNAS October 20, 2015 vol. 112 no. 42 13075-13080

The most deadly complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection is cerebral malaria (CM) with a case fatality rate of 15–25% in African children despite effective antimalarial chemotherapy.

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Solar powered fans, LED lights and mosquitoes

October 14, 2015 - 18:02 -- William Jobin

We need ways to improve the use of bednets because they are so hot to sleep under, and a group in Ghana is working on this. Peter Nardini and some friends from the US Peace Corps are testing a way to sleep comfortably under a bednet by installing small solar-powred fans inside the nets, along with lights and cell-phone battery chargers. Their website is 'Green World Health Net', and they are doing exciting things with these ideas, in a village on the coast of Ghana. You can contact them for info at;

The kdr-bearing haplotype and susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum in Anopheles gambiae: genetic correlation and functional testing

October 12, 2015 - 17:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Christian Mitri, Kyriacos Markianos, Wamdaogo Guelbeogo, Emmanuel Bischoff, Awa Gneme, Karin Eiglmeier, Inge Holm, N’Fale Sagnon, Kenneth Vernick, Michelle Riehle
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2015, 14:391 (6 October 2015)

Genetic variation influencing Plasmodium infection in wild Anopheles is linked to a natural ~3 megabase haplotype on chromosome 2L that carries the kdr allele of the para gene.

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