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Africa

Evidence of multiple pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto from Nigeria

October 25, 2009 - 17:39 -- Bart G.J. Knols
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Author(s): 
T.S. Awolola, O.A. Oduola, C. Strode, L.L. Koekemoer, B. Brooke, H. Ranson
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Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 103, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 1139-1145, doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.08.021

 Pyrethroid insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is a major concern to malaria vector control programmes. Resistance is mainly due to target-site insensitivity arising from a single point mutation, often referred to as knockdown resistance (kdr). Metabolic-based resistance mechanisms have also been implicated in pyrethroid resistance in East Africa and are currently being investigated in West Africa. Here we report the co-occurrence of both resistance mechanisms in a population of An. gambiae s.s. from Nigeria.

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The distribution of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Cameroon: an update

October 25, 2009 - 17:32 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Hamadou N.M. et al.
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Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 103, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 1127-1138, doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.11.018

Insecticides are a key component of vector-based malaria control programmes in Cameroon. As part of ongoing resistance surveillance efforts, Anopheles gambiae s.l. female mosquitoes were exposed to organochlorine (DDT), a carbamate (bendiocarb), an organophosphate (malathion), and three pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin) in WHO bioassay test kits.

Carbamate and organophosphorous compounds could thus be used as alternatives in locations in Cameroon where pyrethroid-resistant populations are found.

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Insecticide resistance and its association with target-site mutations in natural populations of Anopheles gambiae from eastern Uganda

October 25, 2009 - 17:27 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Urvashi Ramphul, Thomas Boase, Chris Bass, Loyce M. Okedi, Martin J. Donnelly, Pie Müller
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Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 103, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 1121-1126, doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.02.014

Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae threatens the success of malaria vector control programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to manage insecticide resistance successfully, it is essential to assess continuously the target mosquito population. Here, we collected baseline information on the distribution and prevalence of insecticide resistance and its association with target-site mutations in eastern Uganda.

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Distribution of pyrethroid and DDT resistance and the L1014F kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Burkina Faso (West Africa)

October 25, 2009 - 17:23 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
K.R. Dabiré, A. Diabaté, M. Namountougou, K.H. Toé, A. Ouari, P. Kengne, C. Bass, T. Baldet
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Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 103, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 1113-1120, doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.01.008

This study reports on the distribution of pyrethroid and DDT resistance and the L1014F knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from 21 localities in three different climatic zones of Burkina Faso from August to October 2006. These results have practical significance for malaria vector control programs.

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Special Focus Review: From the circumsporozoite protein to the RTS,S/AS candidate vaccine

October 25, 2009 - 16:43 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
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Author(s): 
Joe Cohen, Victor Nussenzweig, Johan Vekemans and Amanda Leach
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Human Vaccines, Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2010

The RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine candidate has recently entered phase 3 testing. Reaching this important milestone is the culmination of more than 20 years of research and development by GlaxoSmithKline and partners and collaborators. The vaccine has been developed to protect young children and infants living in sub-Saharan Africa against clinical and severe disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection.

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LA-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci in three west African ethnic groups: Genetic relationship with sub-Saharan African and European populations

October 25, 2009 - 15:44 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
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Author(s): 
Patrizia Lulli et al.
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Human Immunology, Volume 70, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 903-909, doi:10.1016/j.humimm.2009.07.025

The Fulani of west Africa have been shown to be less susceptible to malaria and to mount a stronger immune response to malaria than sympatric ethnic groups. The analysis of HLA diversity is useful for the assessment of the genetic distance between the Fulani and sympatric populations, which represents the necessary theoretical background for the investigation of genetic determinants of susceptibility to malaria.

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Mechanisms of Resistance: Plasmodium falciparum Drug Resistance in Madagascar: Facing the Spread of Unusual pfdhfr and pfmdr-1 Haplotypes and the Decrease of Dihydroartemisinin Susceptibility

October 25, 2009 - 15:02 -- Ingeborg van Schayk
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Author(s): 
Valérie Andriantsoanirina et al.
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Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2009 53: 4588-4597, doi:10.1128/AAC.00610-09

The aim of this study was to provide the first comprehensive spatiotemporal picture of Plasmodium falciparum resistance in various geographic areas in Madagascar. Additional data about the antimalarial resistance in the neighboring islands of the Comoros archipelago were also collected.

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Review: The use of schools for malaria surveillance and programme evaluation in Africa

October 25, 2009 - 14:06 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Simon Brooker, Jan H Kolaczinski, Carol W Gitonga, Abdisalan M Noor, Robert W Snow
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2009, 8:231 (19 October 2009)

This paper reviews the historical experience and current rationale for the use of schools and school children as a complementary, inexpensive framework for planning, monitoring and evaluating malaria control in Africa.

 

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