Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) is responsible for the transmission of the devastating Plasmodium falciparum (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) strain of malaria in Africa.
The two household-level indicators—one representing minimal coverage, the other only ‘universal’ coverage—provide an incomplete and potentially misleading picture of personal protection and the success of an ITN distribution programme.
The parasite Plasmodium falciparum is the main cause of severe malaria (SM). Despite treatment with antimalarial drugs, more than 400,000 deaths are reported every year, mainly in African children.
Although Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria infections outside Africa, little is known about its evolution and pathway to humans.
It is valuable and refreshing to see contributions to strategies for malaria suppression in Africa from other disciplines, such as economics. Killeen and Reed pointed out that the portfolio effect cushions mosquito populations and malaria transmission against vector control interventions.(Killeen GF, Reed TE. Malar J. 2018 Aug 10;17(1):291. doi: 10.1186/s12936-018-2441-z.) Thus it must be considered when planning a strategy for Africa.
Dr. Kenneth Staley has just been appointed as the new head of the US Presidential Malaria Initiative, succeeding Tim Ziemer who led the PMI for so many years. This is probably the most important position in global malaria control, and we wish Dr. Staley all the best.
Given that the drop in malaria prevalence in Nigeria has been very modest in the last 5 years, it would be wise to take another look at the methods being used - which unfortunately are ephemeral (indoor sprays, bednets and drugs) and must be repeated every year. The lack of emphasis on permanent measures, such as Larval Source Management, is a key to the problem. With the ephemeral methods, because the national budget for malaria control can only increase slowly, thus the program will only increase slowly.
Recently I published "Increased economic productivity after suppressing malaria transmission in 14 African countries" in the ejournal African Policy Journal, 2014 v9 Apr. This is a new journal run by students at Harvard Graduate School of Govt, and does not get picked up by the normal search engines, so I urge you to go to their website at African Policy Journal for their current articles.
The results of the NOHARM trial help address a major barrier to using hydroxyurea treatment in children with SCA in regions where malaria is endemic, thereby moving clinicians a step closer to its wider use across sub-Saharan Africa.
NFM remains an important cause of imported malaria in patients from sub-Saharan Africa, alone or as mixed infection with P. falciparum.