The human parasite Plasmodium falciparum kills an estimated 445,000 people a year, with the most fatalities occurring in African children.
Taken together, this study demonstrates that the normal physiological process of a blood meal activates the innate immune response in mosquitoes. This process is likely in part regulated by Ras-MAPK signaling, highlighting a novel mechanistic link between blood feeding and immunity.
Chitin synthase (CHS) represents an attractive target site for combating insect pests as insect growth and development are strictly dependent on precisely tuned chitin biosynthesis and this pathway is absent in humans and other vertebrates.
These findings and the greater tolerance of females to thermal extremes may have significant implications for future malaria transmission, especially in areas of current seasonal transmission and in areas on the boundaries of current vector distribution.
In this study, 454, a next generation sequencing technology, was evaluated as a method for assessing diversity in these regions. Portions of the circumsporozoite gene (cs) were sequenced both by 454 and Sanger sequencing from samples collected in a study in Bandiagara, Mali.
The review by Cohen et al. suggests one possible future if such investment is not made. However, with sufficient support, malaria resurgences can be relegated to history.
These results suggest that cattle treated with ivermectin or eprinomectin in the prescribed range of low dosages as parasiticides have blood toxic to zoophilic malaria vectors.
The primary end point of the analysis was vaccine efficacy against clinical malaria during the 12 months after vaccination in the first 6000 children 5 to 17 months of age at enrollment who received all three doses of vaccine according to protocol. After 250 children had an episode of severe malaria, we evaluated vaccine efficacy against severe malaria in both age categories.
These data suggest that coadaptation between vectors and parasites may act to minimize the impact of infection on mosquito fitness by selectively suppressing specific functional classes of genes.
Study participants, aged >1 year, with microscopically confirmed uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and haemoglobin 70 g/L or haematocrit 25%, were recruited into two clinical trials conducted in six African countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Mali).