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New: WHO toolkit for Integrated Vector Management in sub-Saharan Africa

November 11, 2016 - 10:48 -- Bart G.J. Knols

WHO has just published its toolkit for Integrated Vector Management in sub-Saharan Africa. It is attached here for your perusal (and use!).

This toolkit for integrated vector management (IVM) is designed to help national and regional programme managers coordinate across sectors to design and run large IVM programmes. It is an extension of earlier guidance and teaching material provided by WHO: Handbook for integrated vector management , Monitoring and evaluation indicators for integrated vector management , Guidance on policy-making for integrated vector management and Core structure for training curricula on integrated vector management.

Research: Large-scale production of the malaria vector biocontrol agent Romanomermis iyengari (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in Benin, West Africa

January 17, 2015 - 15:13 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Thiery BC Alavo, Ayaba Z Abagli, Rafael Pérez-Pacheco, Edward G Platzer
Reference: 
MWJ2015, 6, 1

The mermithid nematode Romanomermis iyengari is one of several natural control alternatives to synthetic pesticides for mosquito suppression. The commonly used mass rearing procedure of R. iyengari involves the use of coarse sand as a substrate for nematode maturation and oviposition. The coarse sand technique gives excellent nematode productivity in North America. However, under West African climatic conditions, this technique generates relatively lesser amounts of infectious worms. We evaluated coconut coir fibres as a replacement for coarse sand to improve yields in large-scale production of R. iyengari in Benin, West Africa. Culex quinquefasciatus was the host for the nematodes, and mosquitoes were blood-fed on chickens. Four days after blood feeding, egg rafts were collected and transferred into trays, each containing 2 l of water. The mosquito larvae were fed with fish food. When the mosquito larvae reached the second instar, preparasites (J2) were added (3 J2/larva) to the incubation trays. Eight days after infection, post-parasitic juveniles were separated from the water containing dead mosquito larvae and other debris using sieves and needles; 2 g of them were deposited in containers with coarse sand or coconut coir fibres and water. Three hours later, the water was drained, the jars covered and stored for eight weeks, after which J2 abundance was determined, using a total of 320 containers for each substrate. The abundance of J2 preparasites was also assessed 3-5 months after storage to determine the impact of long-term storage on the J2 yield. Results. After 2 months storage, 2 g of post-parasites (~457 females and 583 males) yielded an average of 559,300±6094 J2 and 155,818±4427 J2 per container for coconut fibres and for coarse sand, respectively. During long-term storage, yields of J2 on coconut fibres substrate slowly decreased from 442,180±9322 J2 (3 months storage) to 163,632±12,416 J2 per container (5 months storage). On coarse sand substrate, the yield was relatively low and decreased from 49,812±1200 J2 at 3 months storage to 3046±229 J2 at 5 months storage. Under West African climatic conditions, coconut coir fibres gave significantly higher preparasitic nematode yields than the coarse sand technique. 

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Seasonal malaria chemoprevention combined with community case management of malaria in children under 10 years of age, over 5 months, in south-east Senegal: A cluster-randomised trial

March 28, 2019 - 16:07 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Jean Louis A. Ndiaye, Youssoupha Ndiaye, Paul Milligan, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med 16(3): e1002762

 

In this study SMC for children under 10 years of age given over 5 months was feasible, well tolerated, and effective in preventing malaria episodes, and reduced the prevalence of parasitaemia and anaemia. SMC with CCM achieved high coverage and ensured children with malaria were promptly treated with artemether-lumefantrine.

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Detection of Plasmodium falciparum infected Anopheles gambiae using near-infrared spectroscopy

March 20, 2019 - 15:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Marta F. Maia, Melissa Kapulu, Michelle Muthui, Martin G. Wagah, Heather M. Ferguson, Floyd E. Dowell, Francesco Baldini and Lisa-Ranford Cartwright
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:85, 19 March 2019

Accurate, low-cost, reagent-free screening of mosquito populations enabled by NIRS could revolutionize surveillance and elimination strategies for the most important human malaria parasite in its primary African vector species.

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Antibody responses to merozoite antigens after natural Plasmodium falciparum infection: kinetics and longevity in absence of re-exposure

February 9, 2019 - 18:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Victor Yman, Michael T. White, Muhammad Asghar, Christopher Sundling, Klara Sondén, Simon J. Draper, Faith H. A. Osier and Anna Färnert
Reference: 
BMC Medicine 201917:22

Prospective studies of travellers with different levels of prior exposure, returning to malaria-free countries with Plasmodium infection, offer a unique opportunity to investigate the kinetics and composition of the antibody response after natural infection.

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Using the human blood index to investigate host biting plasticity: a systematic review and meta-regression of the three major African malaria vectors

January 2, 2019 - 15:19 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
James Orsborne, Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Laith Yakob, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2018 17:479, 18 December 2018

These findings call into question the appropriateness of current methods of assessing host preferences among disease vectors and have important implications for strategizing vector control.

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Has doxycycline, in combination with anti-malarial drugs, a role to play in intermittent preventive treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in pregnant women in Africa?

December 27, 2018 - 15:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tiphaine Gaillard, Manon Boxberger, Marylin Madamet and Bruno Pradines
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2018 17:469, 14 December 2018

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Plasmodium falciparum malaria during pregnancy is responsible for deleterious consequences for the mother and her child.

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Roll Back Malaria: an historical footnote

November 21, 2018 - 14:50 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Sir Richard Feachem
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2018 17:433, 19 November 2018

Prompted by the 20th anniversary of Roll Back Malaria, the author recalls hypotheses concerning a major new initiative to control malaria in Africa put forward by WHO AFRO and the World Bank in 1996.

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Age and gender trends in insecticide-treated net use in sub-Saharan Africa: a multi-country analysis

November 17, 2018 - 08:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bolanle Olapeju, Ifta Choiriyyah, Hannah Koenker, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2018 17:423

This study demonstrated that having enough ITNs in the household increases level of use and decreases existing disparities between age and gender groups. ITN distribution via mass campaigns and continuous distribution channels should be enhanced as needed to ensure that households have enough ITNs for all members, including men and school-aged children.

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NOT Open Access | Mapping potential Anopheles gambiae s.l. larval distribution using remotely sensed climatic and environmental variables in Baringo, Kenya

November 7, 2018 - 14:46 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
J. A. Amadi, G. O. Ong'amo, D. O. Olago, S. O. Oriaso, I. K. Nyamongo, B. B. A. Estambale
Reference: 
Medical and Veterinary Entomology Volume32, Issue4 December 2018 Pages 417-426

Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) is responsible for the transmission of the devastating Plasmodium falciparum (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) strain of malaria in Africa.

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