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New: WHO toolkit for Integrated Vector Management in sub-Saharan Africa

November 11, 2016 - 10:48 -- Bart G.J. Knols

WHO has just published its toolkit for Integrated Vector Management in sub-Saharan Africa. It is attached here for your perusal (and use!).

This toolkit for integrated vector management (IVM) is designed to help national and regional programme managers coordinate across sectors to design and run large IVM programmes. It is an extension of earlier guidance and teaching material provided by WHO: Handbook for integrated vector management , Monitoring and evaluation indicators for integrated vector management , Guidance on policy-making for integrated vector management and Core structure for training curricula on integrated vector management.

Research: Large-scale production of the malaria vector biocontrol agent Romanomermis iyengari (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in Benin, West Africa

January 17, 2015 - 15:13 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Author(s): 
Thiery BC Alavo, Ayaba Z Abagli, Rafael Pérez-Pacheco, Edward G Platzer
Reference: 
MWJ2015, 6, 1

The mermithid nematode Romanomermis iyengari is one of several natural control alternatives to synthetic pesticides for mosquito suppression. The commonly used mass rearing procedure of R. iyengari involves the use of coarse sand as a substrate for nematode maturation and oviposition. The coarse sand technique gives excellent nematode productivity in North America. However, under West African climatic conditions, this technique generates relatively lesser amounts of infectious worms. We evaluated coconut coir fibres as a replacement for coarse sand to improve yields in large-scale production of R. iyengari in Benin, West Africa. Culex quinquefasciatus was the host for the nematodes, and mosquitoes were blood-fed on chickens. Four days after blood feeding, egg rafts were collected and transferred into trays, each containing 2 l of water. The mosquito larvae were fed with fish food. When the mosquito larvae reached the second instar, preparasites (J2) were added (3 J2/larva) to the incubation trays. Eight days after infection, post-parasitic juveniles were separated from the water containing dead mosquito larvae and other debris using sieves and needles; 2 g of them were deposited in containers with coarse sand or coconut coir fibres and water. Three hours later, the water was drained, the jars covered and stored for eight weeks, after which J2 abundance was determined, using a total of 320 containers for each substrate. The abundance of J2 preparasites was also assessed 3-5 months after storage to determine the impact of long-term storage on the J2 yield. Results. After 2 months storage, 2 g of post-parasites (~457 females and 583 males) yielded an average of 559,300±6094 J2 and 155,818±4427 J2 per container for coconut fibres and for coarse sand, respectively. During long-term storage, yields of J2 on coconut fibres substrate slowly decreased from 442,180±9322 J2 (3 months storage) to 163,632±12,416 J2 per container (5 months storage). On coarse sand substrate, the yield was relatively low and decreased from 49,812±1200 J2 at 3 months storage to 3046±229 J2 at 5 months storage. Under West African climatic conditions, coconut coir fibres gave significantly higher preparasitic nematode yields than the coarse sand technique. 

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Description of Plasmodium falciparum infections in central Gabon demonstrating high parasite densities among symptomatic adolescents and adults

November 30, 2019 - 12:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zoleko Manego R, Koehne E, Mombo-Ngoma G, et al.
Reference: 
Malar J. 2019 Nov 21;18(1):371

Malaria remains a public health issue, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa with special features of seriousness in young children and pregnant women. Adolescents and adults are reported to have acquired a semi-immune status and, therefore, present with low parasitaemia. Children are understood to present with a much higher parasitaemia and severe malaria. It is a concern that effective malaria control programmes targeting young children may lead to a delay in the acquisition of acquired immunity and, therefore, causing a shift in the epidemiology of malaria. Prevalence and parasitaemia were explored in adolescents and adults with Plasmodium falciparum infections compared to young children in the area of Lambaréné, Gabon as an indicator for semi-immunity. 

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Not Open Access | Adherence and population pharmacokinetic properties of amodiaquine when used for seasonal malaria chemoprevention in African children

November 19, 2019 - 14:56 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Junjie Ding, Matthew E. Coldiron, Joel Tarning, et al.
Reference: 
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 106, Issue 6

The developed methodology to evaluate adherence showed a sensitivity of 65‐71% when the first dose of SMC was directly observed and 71‐73% when no doses were observed in a routine programmatic setting. Adherence simulations and measured desethylamodiaquine concentrations in the case‐control children showed complete adherence (all doses taken) in less than 20% of children. 

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Systematic review of the status of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletion, approaches and methods used for its estimation and reporting in Plasmodium falciparum populations in Africa: review of published studies 2010–2019

November 11, 2019 - 16:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bosco B. Agaba, Adoke Yeka, Sam Nsobya, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Joaniter Nankabirwa, Jimmy Opigo, Paul Mbaka, Chae Seung Lim, Joan N. Kalyango, Charles Karamagi and Moses R. Kamya
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:355, 6 November 2019

Malaria rapid diagnostic tests based on histidine-rich protein-2 have played a vital role in improving malaria case management and surveillance particularly in Africa, where Plasmodium falciparum is predominant. However, their usefulness has been threatened by the emergence of gene deletion on P. falciparum histidine rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and P. falciparum histidine rich protein 3 (pfhrp3). 

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Problem formulation for gene drive mosquitoes designed to reduce malaria transmission in Africa: results from four regional consultations 2016–2018

October 22, 2019 - 05:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
John L. Teem, Aggrey Ambali, Barbara Glover, Jeremy Ouedraogo, Diran Makinde and Andrew Roberts
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:347, 15 October 2019

Gene drive mosquitoes have been proposed as a possible means to reduce the transmission of malaria in Africa. Because this technology has no prior use-history at this time, environmental risk assessments for gene drive mosquitoes will benefit from problem formulation—an organized and ordered process to identify protection goals and potential pathways to harm to the environment, or animal or human health. Recognizing this need, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), with support from African and international partners, organized four regional consultative workshops in Africa to initiate this process.

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Targeted Next Generation Sequencing for malaria research in Africa: current status and outlook

September 24, 2019 - 14:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Anita Ghansah, Edwin Kamau, Abdoulaye Djimde, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:324, 23 September 2019

Targeted Next Generation Sequencing (TNGS) is an efficient and economical Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platform and the preferred choice when specific genomic regions are of interest.

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K-13 propeller gene polymorphisms isolated between 2014 and 2017 from Cameroonian Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients

September 13, 2019 - 07:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Carole Else Eboumbou Moukoko, Fang Huang, Lawrence Ayong, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 14(9): e0221895

The emergence of artemisinin-resistant parasites since the late 2000s at the border of Cambodia and Thailand poses serious threats to malaria control globally, particularly in Africa which bears the highest malaria transmission burden.

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Mosquito feeding behavior and how it influences residual malaria transmission across Africa

July 29, 2019 - 15:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ellie Sherrard-Smith, Janetta E. Skarp, Thomas S. Churcher, et al.
Reference: 
PNAS July 23, 2019 116 (30) 15086-15095

The antimalarial efficacy of the most important vector control interventions—long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)—primarily protect against mosquitoes’ biting people when they are in bed and indoors.

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