We found a significant decrease of LIR in adult CM fatal cases compared to surviving patients (). In MM, LIRs were correlated to IgG anti-iRBC and anti-PfEMP3/5 levels. In CM, no correlation was found between LIR, IgG levels, and parasitemia.
Although the World Health Organization recommends replacing quinine (QN) by artesunate due to its increased efficacy and the higher tolerance to the drug in both adults and children, QN remains a first-line treatment for severe malaria, especially in Africa.
Since 2004, the prevalence of chloroquine resistance had decreased.
The spatial and temporal heterogeneity of An. gambiae s.l. larval density, adult human-biting rate (HBR) and malaria transmission in Dakar has been confirmed, and the environmental factors associated with this heterogeneity have been identified.
The introduction of ACT in 2002 has not induced a decrease in P. falciparum susceptibility to the drugs DHA, MDAQ and LMF, which are common ACT components. However, the prevalence of P. falciparum isolates with reduced susceptibility has increased for both MQ and DOX.
Environmental data retrieved from high spatial resolution SPOT satellite images were associated with An. arabiensis densities in Dakar urban setting, which allowed to generate malaria transmission risk maps.
A group of leading scientists, clinical trialists and stakeholders, together with representatives of regulatory authorities including some from African countries, met recently to document the issues that will require detailed consideration to assess this promising approach. Questions related to scale-up, quality, purity and consistency of a manufacturing process using mosquitoes to generate a commercial product, and demonstration of the stability of attenuated sporozoites will need further work.