This study aimed to document ADR incidence and associated household costs in three high malaria transmission districts in rural Tanzania covered by demographic surveillance systems.
This opinion article reviews the mechanisms underlying parasite clearance after artemisinin treatment and how these might relate to in vitro methods to assay for resistance.
To properly assess the danger posed by artemisinin resistance, and therefore enable appropriate and proportionate responses, definitions of ‘artemisinin resistance’ and ‘ACT resistance’, at both the clinical and parasitological levels, are needed.
This case study describes how a public-private partnership between Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) and Sigma-Tau Industrie Farmaceutiche Riunite SpA achieved international regulatory approval for use of the fixed-dose artemisinin-based combination therapy dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (Eurartesim(R)) for the treatment of malaria, enabling more widespread access to the medicine in malaria-endemic countries.
In this paper, an outline definition of the ideal and minimally acceptable characteristics of the types of clinical candidate molecule which are needed (target candidate profiles) is suggested. In addition, the optimal and minimally acceptable characteristics of combination medicines are outlined (target product profiles).
In this setting, artemisinin combinations should be available for treatment of uncomplicated malaria as they are clearly superior to any other oral antimalarial in their fast reduction of parasite biomass and in decreasing clinical symptoms.
Here, we report a new sesquiterpene synthase from A. annua, α-bisabolol synthase (AaBOS), which has high sequence identity to amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (AaADS), a key enzyme in artemisinin biosynthesis.
The present study provides information on genetic analysis in multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) (N86Y/Y184F/S1034C/N1042D/F1226Y/D1246Y) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (pfmrp1) (H191Y/S437A/I876V/F1390I/K1466R) genes that are probably associated with artemisinin as well as chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) 76T in P. falciparum clinical isolates (N = 200) exposed to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) 4 years after its adoption in Iran.
In this opinion paper, the requirements for the continued success of ACTs, their role in this transition, and possible new ways of using these drugs in an elimination setting are discussed. ACTs have an important role to play in maintaining the current success of control programs, and may also drive these successes forward into the widespread elimination of malaria.
Reported compliance with LLINs was 98% based on monthly routine evaluations. A total of 1,633 episodes of malaria were observed, with a median incidence of 5.3 per person-year (PPY).