The pathogenic variant c.144T>G (p.N48K) in the clarin1 gene (CLRN1) results in progressive loss of vision and hearing in Usher syndrome IIIA (USH3A) patients.
Currently, the most effective antimalarial is artemisinin, which is extracted from the leaves of medicinal herb Artemisia annua L. (A. annua).
In 2012, the World Health Organization recommended the addition of single low-dose primaquine (SLDPQ, 0.25 mg base/kg body weight) to artemisinin combination therapies to block the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum without testing for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.
Apart from k13, pfarps10, pffd and pfmdr2 are also useful for molecular surveillance of artemisinin resistance especially where k13 mutation has not been reported.
Mass drug administration for malaria was well accepted by communities at high risk of malaria in Zanzibar, with high participation and completion rates.
In this review we aimed to assess the results of non-clinical and clinical studies with artemisinin derivatives, their mechanisms of embryotoxicity and discuss the safety of their use during pregnancy.
Between 2003 and 2013, we studied the efficacy of MAS3 in 1005 patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in relation to molecular markers of resistance.
All relevant studies were identified through a systematic review of PubMed. Risk of bias was evaluated based on study design, methodology, and missing data.
Using this developed methodology, it was found that a quarter of ACTs purchased in Enugu, Nigeria (concurrent study), that would have been classified as substandard, were in fact degraded. Presence of degradation products together with evidence of insufficient APIs can be used to classify drugs as degraded.
Transformation of Artemisia sp. with rol ABC genes can lead to the increased production of artemisinin, which will help to meet the increasing demand of artemisinin because of its diverse pharmacological and anti-malarial importance.