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anti-malarial drug

Community and healthcare providers’ perceptions of quality of private sector outpatient malaria care in North-western Ethiopia: a qualitative study

March 18, 2021 - 09:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mesele Damte Argaw, Thandisizwe Redford Mavundla and Kassa Daka Gidebo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:153, 17 March 2021

Malaria is one of the most important public health problems in Ethiopia contributing to significant patient morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and effective malaria case management through public, private and community health facilities has been one of the key malaria prevention, control and elimination strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate adult malaria patients and healthcare providers’ perception of the quality of malaria management at private sector outpatient facilities.

Molecular surveillance of pfcrt, pfmdr1 and pfk13-propeller mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolates imported from Africa to China

February 8, 2021 - 10:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fang Huang, He Yan, Jing-Bo Xue, Yan-Wen Cui, Shui-Sen Zhou, Zhi-Gui Xia, Rabindra Abeyasinghe, Pascal Ringwald and Xiao-Nong Zhou
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:73, 6 February 2021

The emergence and spread of multidrug resistance poses a significant risk to malaria control and eradication goals in the world. There has been no indigenous malaria cases reported in China since 2017, and China is approaching national malaria elimination. Therefore, anti-malarial drug resistance surveillance and tracking the emergence and spread of imported drug-resistant malaria cases will be necessary in a post-elimination phase in China.

Drug resistance markers within an evolving efficacy of anti-malarial drugs in Cameroon: a systematic review and meta-analysis (1998–2020)

January 13, 2021 - 10:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Peter Thelma Ngwa Niba, Akindeh M. Nji, Wilfred F. Mbacham, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:32, 9 January 2021

Malaria remains highly endemic in Cameroon. The rapid emergence and spread of drug resistance was responsible for the change from monotherapies to artemisinin-based combinations. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance markers within an evolving efficacy of anti-malarial drugs in Cameroon from January 1998 to August 2020.

KASP: a genotyping method to rapid identification of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum

January 9, 2021 - 13:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ana Alvarez-Fernandez, María J. Bernal, Isabel Fradejas, Alexandra Martin Ramírez, Noor Azian Md Yusuf, Marta Lanza, Shamilah Hisam, Ana Pérez de Ayala and José M. Rubio
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:16, 6 January 2021

The emergence and spread of anti-malarial resistance continues to hinder malaria control. Plasmodium falciparum, the species that causes most human malaria cases and most deaths, has shown resistance to almost all known anti-malarials. This anti-malarial resistance arises from the development and subsequent expansion of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in specific parasite genes. A quick and cheap tool for the detection of drug resistance can be crucial and very useful for use in hospitals and in malaria control programmes. It has been demonstrated in different contexts that genotyping by Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP), is a simple, fast and economical method that allows a high-precision biallelic characterization of SNPs, hence its possible utility in the study of resistance in P. falciparum.

Transition of radical, preventive and presumptive treatment regimens for malaria in China: a systematic review

January 7, 2021 - 12:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jian-Wei Xu, Rogan Lee, Xiao-Hong Li and Hui Liu
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:10, 6 January 2021

Globally, malaria is still a major public health challenge. Drug-based treatment is the primary intervention in malaria control and elimination. However, optimal use of mass or targeted treatments remains unclear. A variety of radical, preventive and presumptive treatment regimens have been administrated in China and a systematic review was conducted to evaluate effectiveness, and discuss experiences, limitations, and lessons learnt in relation to the use of these regimens.

Molecular surveillance and temporal monitoring of malaria parasites in focal Vietnamese provinces

January 1, 2021 - 16:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bui Van Long, Genevieve Allen, Melanie Brauny, Le Thi Kieu Linh, Srinivas Reddy Pallerla, Tran Thi Thu Huyen, Hoang Van Tong, Nguyen Linh Toan, Do Quyet, Ho Anh Son and Thirumalaisamy P. Velavan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:458, 31 December 2020

While the World Health Organization (WHO) Southeast Asia region has the second highest incidence of malaria worldwide, malaria in Vietnam is focal to few provinces, where delayed parasite clearance to anti-malarial drugs is documented. This study aims to understand Plasmodium species distribution and the genetic diversity of msp1 and msp2 of parasite populations using molecular tools.

Characterisation of plasmodial transketolases and identification of potential inhibitors: an in silico study

December 2, 2020 - 08:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rita Afriyie Boateng, Özlem Tastan Bishop and Thommas Mutemi Musyoka
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:442, 30 November 2020

Plasmodial transketolase (PTKT) enzyme is one of the novel pharmacological targets being explored as potential anti-malarial drug target due to its functional role and low sequence identity to the human enzyme. Despite this, features contributing to such have not been exploited for anti-malarial drug design. Additionally, there are no anti-malarial drugs targeting PTKTs whereas the broad activity of these inhibitors against PTKTs from other Plasmodium spp. is yet to be reported. This study characterises different PTKTs [Plasmodium falciparum (PfTKT), Plasmodium vivax (PvTKT), Plasmodium ovale (PoTKT), Plasmodium malariae (PmTKT) and Plasmodium knowlesi (PkTKT) and the human homolog (HsTKT)] to identify key sequence and structural based differences as well as the identification of selective potential inhibitors against PTKTs.

Global estimation of anti-malarial drug effectiveness for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria 1991–2019

October 20, 2020 - 16:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Giulia Rathmes, Susan F. Rumisha, Daniel J. Weiss, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:374, 20 October 2020

Anti-malarial drugs play a critical role in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality, but their role is mediated by their effectiveness. Effectiveness is defined as the probability that an anti-malarial drug will successfully treat an individual infected with malaria parasites under routine health care delivery system. Anti-malarial drug effectiveness (AmE) is influenced by drug resistance, drug quality, health system quality, and patient adherence to drug use; its influence on malaria burden varies through space and time.

Assessment of molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance among children participating in a therapeutic efficacy study in western Kenya

August 17, 2020 - 13:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Winnie Chebore, Zhiyong Zhou, Simon Kariuki, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:291, 14 August 2020

Anti-malarial drug resistance remains a major threat to global malaria control efforts. In Africa, Plasmodium falciparum remains susceptible to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), but the emergence of resistant parasites in multiple countries in Southeast Asia and concerns over emergence and/or spread of resistant parasites in Africa warrants continuous monitoring. The World Health Organization recommends that surveillance for molecular markers of resistance be included within therapeutic efficacy studies (TES). The current study assessed molecular markers associated with resistance to Artemether−lumefantrine (AL) and Dihydroartemisinin−piperaquine (DP) from samples collected from children aged 6–59 months enrolled in a TES conducted in Siaya County, western Kenya from 2016 to 2017.

Anti-malarial drug, artemisinin and its derivatives for the treatment of respiratory diseases

May 19, 2020 - 14:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cheong DHJ, Daniel Tan WS, Fred Wong WS, Tran T
Reference: 
Pharmacol Res. 2020 May 13:104901

Artemisinins are sesquiterpene lactones with a peroxide moiety that are isolated from the herb Artemisia annua. It has been used for centuries for the treatment of fever and chills, and has been recently approved for the treatment of malaria due to its endoperoxidase properties. Progressively, research has found that artemisinins displayed multiple pharmacological actions against inflammation, viral infections, and cell and tumour proliferation, making them effective against diseases. Moreover, it has displayed a relatively safe toxicity profile.

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