Malaria is a global health problem with the most malignant form caused by Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) . Parasite maturation in red blood cells (RBCs) is accompanied by changes including the formation of paramagnetic hemozoin (HZ) nanocrystals, and increased metabolism and variation in membrane lipid composition. Herein, MR relaxometry (MRR) was applied to investigate water exchange across RBCs’ membrane and HZ formation in parasitized RBCs.
In 2006, the National Malaria Control Program in Mali recommended artemisinin-based combination therapy as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Since the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy, few reports are available on the level of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to the most common anti-malarial drugs in Mali.
The Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter gene (pfcrt) is known to be involved in chloroquine and amodiaquine resistance, and more particularly the mutations on the loci 72 to 76 localized within the second exon. Additionally, new mutations (T93S, H97Y, C101F, F145I, M343L, C350R and G353V) were recently shown to be associated with in vitro reduced susceptibility to piperaquine in Asian or South American P. falciparum strains. However, very few data are available on the prevalence of these mutations and their effect on parasite susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs, and more particularly piperaquine in Africa.
Resistance threatens all our currently available anti-malarial drugs.
Parasite resistance against anti-malarial drugs is a major threat to the ongoing malaria control and elimination strategies.
The attachment of alkylamino side chains leads to the improvement of antiplasmodial activity and aqueous solubility of selective PfGSK-inhibitors belonging to the class of 4-phenylthieno[2,3-b]pyridines.
This first randomized study in Brazzaville confirmed the excellent efficacy of these co-formulated anti-malarial drugs in children.