Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies are dominant malarial vectors in urban and rural India, respectively. Both species carry significant biological differences in their behavioral adaptation and immunity, but the genetic basis of these variations are still poorly understood. Here, we uncovered the genetic differences of immune blood cells, that influence several immune-physiological responses. We generated, analyzed and compared the hemocyte RNA-Seq database of both mosquitoes. A total of 5,837,223,769 assembled bases collapsed into 7,595 and 3,791 transcripts, originating from hemocytes of laboratory-reared 3-4 days old naïve (sugar-fed) mosquitoes, Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies respectively.
Improving the knowledge and understanding of the environmental determinants of malaria vector abundance at fine spatiotemporal scales is essential to design locally tailored vector control intervention. This work is aimed at exploring the environmental tenets of human-biting activity in the main malaria vectors (Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles funestus) in the health district of Diébougou, rural Burkina Faso.
The emergence of insecticide resistance is a major threat to malaria control programmes in Africa, with many different factors contributing to insecticide resistance in its vectors, Anopheles mosquitoes. CYP6M2 has previously been recognized as an important candidate in cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification in Anopheles. As it has been implicated in resistance against pyrethroids, organochlorines and carbamates, its broad metabolic activity makes it a potential agent in insecticide cross-resistance. Currently, allelic variation within the Cyp6m2 gene remains unknown.
Mosquito species from the Anopheles gambiae complex and the Anopheles funestus group are dominant African malaria vectors. Mosquito microbiota play vital roles in physiology and vector competence. Recent research has focused on investigating the mosquito microbiota, especially in wild populations. Wild mosquitoes are preserved and transported to a laboratory for analyses. Thus far, microbial characterization post-preservation has been investigated in only Aedes vexans and Culex pipiens. Investigating the efficacy of cost-effective preservatives has also been limited to AllProtect reagent, ethanol and nucleic acid preservation buffer. This study characterized the microbiota of African Anopheles vectors: Anopheles arabiensis (member of the An. gambiae complex) and An. funestus (member of the An. funestus group), preserved on silica desiccant and RNAlater® solution.
Ivermectin is a low-cost and nontoxic mosquitocide that may have a role in malaria elimination. However, the extent to which this drug impacts the mortality of Anopheles dirus and Anopheles epiroticus, two important malaria vectors in Southeast Asia, is unknown. This study compared quantified anopheline mortality after feeding on ivermectin-treated cattle and control cattle in Vietnam.
Plasmodium knowlesi is the main cause of malaria in Sarawak, where studies on vectors of P. knowlesi have been conducted in only two districts. Anopheles balabacensis and An. donaldi were incriminated as vectors in Lawas and An. latens in Kapit. We studied a third location in Sarawak, Betong, where of 2169 mosquitoes collected over 36 days using human-landing catches, 169 (7.8%) were Anopheles spp. PCR and phylogenetic analyses identified P. knowlesi and/or P. cynomolgi, P. fieldi, P. inui, P. coatneyi and possibly novel Plasmodium spp. in salivary glands of An. latens and An. introlatus from the Leucosphyrus Group and in An. collessi and An. roperi from the Umbrosus Group.
Vector surveillance is essential in determining the geographical distribution of mosquito vectors and understanding the dynamics of malaria transmission. With the elimination of human malaria cases, knowlesi malaria cases in humans are increasing in Malaysia. This necessitates intensive vector studies using safer trapping methods which are both field efficient and able to attract the local vector populations. Thus, this study evaluated the potential of Mosquito Magnet as a collection tool for Anopheles mosquito vectors of simian malaria along with other known collection methods.
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the malaria control interventions primarily responsible for reductions in transmission intensity across sub-Saharan Africa. These interventions, however, may have differential impact on Anopheles species composition and density. This study examined the changing pattern of Anopheles species in three areas of Uganda with markedly different transmission intensities and different levels of vector control.
Malaria persists as a huge medical and economic burden. Although the number of cases and death rates have reduced in recent years, novel interventions are a necessity if such gains are to be maintained. Alternative methods to target mosquito vector populations that involve the release of large numbers genetically modified mosquitoes are in development. However, their successful introduction will require innovative strategies to bulk-up mosquito numbers and improve mass rearing protocols for Anopheles mosquitoes.
With the rapid development and spread of resistance to insecticides among anopheline malaria vectors, the efficacy of current World Health Organization (WHO)-approved insecticides targeting these vectors is under threat. This has led to the development of novel interventions, including improved and enhanced insecticide formulations with new targets or synergists or with added sterilants and/or antimalarials, among others. To date, several studies in mosquitoes have revealed that the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling pathway regulates both vector abundance and competence, two parameters that influence malaria transmission.