Plasmodium knowlesi is the main cause of malaria in Sarawak, where studies on vectors of P. knowlesi have been conducted in only two districts. Anopheles balabacensis and An. donaldi were incriminated as vectors in Lawas and An. latens in Kapit. We studied a third location in Sarawak, Betong, where of 2169 mosquitoes collected over 36 days using human-landing catches, 169 (7.8%) were Anopheles spp. PCR and phylogenetic analyses identified P. knowlesi and/or P. cynomolgi, P. fieldi, P. inui, P. coatneyi and possibly novel Plasmodium spp. in salivary glands of An. latens and An. introlatus from the Leucosphyrus Group and in An. collessi and An. roperi from the Umbrosus Group.
Vector surveillance is essential in determining the geographical distribution of mosquito vectors and understanding the dynamics of malaria transmission. With the elimination of human malaria cases, knowlesi malaria cases in humans are increasing in Malaysia. This necessitates intensive vector studies using safer trapping methods which are both field efficient and able to attract the local vector populations. Thus, this study evaluated the potential of Mosquito Magnet as a collection tool for Anopheles mosquito vectors of simian malaria along with other known collection methods.
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the malaria control interventions primarily responsible for reductions in transmission intensity across sub-Saharan Africa. These interventions, however, may have differential impact on Anopheles species composition and density. This study examined the changing pattern of Anopheles species in three areas of Uganda with markedly different transmission intensities and different levels of vector control.
Malaria persists as a huge medical and economic burden. Although the number of cases and death rates have reduced in recent years, novel interventions are a necessity if such gains are to be maintained. Alternative methods to target mosquito vector populations that involve the release of large numbers genetically modified mosquitoes are in development. However, their successful introduction will require innovative strategies to bulk-up mosquito numbers and improve mass rearing protocols for Anopheles mosquitoes.
With the rapid development and spread of resistance to insecticides among anopheline malaria vectors, the efficacy of current World Health Organization (WHO)-approved insecticides targeting these vectors is under threat. This has led to the development of novel interventions, including improved and enhanced insecticide formulations with new targets or synergists or with added sterilants and/or antimalarials, among others. To date, several studies in mosquitoes have revealed that the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling pathway regulates both vector abundance and competence, two parameters that influence malaria transmission.
The increase in molecular tools for the genetic engineering of insect pests and disease vectors, such as Anopheles mosquitoes that transmit malaria, has led to an unprecedented investigation of the genomic landscape of these organisms. The understanding of genome variability in wild mosquito populations is of primary importance for vector control strategies. This is particularly the case for gene drive systems, which look to introduce genetic traits into a population by targeting specific genomic regions. Gene drive targets with functional or structural constraints are highly desirable as they are less likely to tolerate mutations that prevent targeting by the gene drive and consequent failure of the technology.
The sibling species of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and Anopheles coluzzii co-exist in many parts of West Africa and are thought to have recently diverged through a process of ecological speciation with gene flow. Divergent larval ecological adaptations, resulting in Genotype-by-Environment (G × E) interactions, have been proposed as important drivers of speciation in these species. In West Africa, An. coluzzii tends to be associated with permanent man-made larval habitats such as irrigated rice fields, which are typically more eutrophic and mineral and ammonia-rich than the temporary rain pools exploited by An. gambiae (s.s.)
N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) topical mosquito repellents are effective personal protection tools. However, DEET-based repellents tend to have low consumer acceptability because they are cosmetically unappealing. More attractive formulations are needed to encourage regular user compliance. This study evaluated the protective efficacy and protection duration of a new topical repellent ointment containing 15% DEET, MAÏA® compared to 20% DEET in ethanol using malaria and dengue mosquito vectors in Bagamoyo Tanzania.
The specific immune response to the Anopheles salivary peptide could be a pertinent and complementary tool to assess the risk of malaria transmission and the effectiveness of vector control strategies. This study aimed to obtain first reliable data on the current state of the Anopheles gSG6-P1 biomarker for assess the level of exposure to Anopheles bites in high malaria endemic areas in Cameroon.
During their life cycles, microbes infecting mosquitoes encounter components of the mosquito anti-microbial innate immune defenses. Many of these immune responses also mediate susceptibility to malaria parasite infection. In West Africa, the primary malaria vectors are Anopheles coluzzii and A. gambiae sensu stricto, which is subdivided into the Bamako and Savanna sub-taxa. Here, we performed whole genome comparisons of the three taxa as well as genotyping of 333 putatively functional SNPs located in 58 immune signaling genes.