The sibling species of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and Anopheles coluzzii co-exist in many parts of West Africa and are thought to have recently diverged through a process of ecological speciation with gene flow. Divergent larval ecological adaptations, resulting in Genotype-by-Environment (G × E) interactions, have been proposed as important drivers of speciation in these species. In West Africa, An. coluzzii tends to be associated with permanent man-made larval habitats such as irrigated rice fields, which are typically more eutrophic and mineral and ammonia-rich than the temporary rain pools exploited by An. gambiae (s.s.)
N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) topical mosquito repellents are effective personal protection tools. However, DEET-based repellents tend to have low consumer acceptability because they are cosmetically unappealing. More attractive formulations are needed to encourage regular user compliance. This study evaluated the protective efficacy and protection duration of a new topical repellent ointment containing 15% DEET, MAÏA® compared to 20% DEET in ethanol using malaria and dengue mosquito vectors in Bagamoyo Tanzania.
The specific immune response to the Anopheles salivary peptide could be a pertinent and complementary tool to assess the risk of malaria transmission and the effectiveness of vector control strategies. This study aimed to obtain first reliable data on the current state of the Anopheles gSG6-P1 biomarker for assess the level of exposure to Anopheles bites in high malaria endemic areas in Cameroon.
During their life cycles, microbes infecting mosquitoes encounter components of the mosquito anti-microbial innate immune defenses. Many of these immune responses also mediate susceptibility to malaria parasite infection. In West Africa, the primary malaria vectors are Anopheles coluzzii and A. gambiae sensu stricto, which is subdivided into the Bamako and Savanna sub-taxa. Here, we performed whole genome comparisons of the three taxa as well as genotyping of 333 putatively functional SNPs located in 58 immune signaling genes.
Anopheles mosquitoes have transmitted Plasmodium parasites for millions of years, yet it remains unclear whether they suffer fitness costs to infection. Here we report that the fecundity of virgin and mated females of two important vectors-Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi-is not affected by infection with Plasmodium falciparum, demonstrating that these human malaria parasites do not inflict this reproductive cost on their natural mosquito hosts.
Brazil has the fourth highest prevalence of malaria of all countries in the Americas, with an estimated 42 million people at risk of contracting this disease. Although most cases occur in the Amazon region, cases of an autochthonous nature have also been registered in the extra-Amazonian region where Anopheles aquasalis and An. albitarsis are the mosquito species of greatest epidemiological interest. In 2019, the municipality of Conde (state of Paraíba) experienced an epidemic of autochthonous cases of malaria. Here we present preliminary results of an entomological and case epidemiology investigation, in an attempt to correlate the diversity and spatial distribution of species of Anopheles with the autochthonous cases of this outbreak of malaria.
Wing lengths of parous (P) and nulliparous (NP) PCR-identified female Anopheles belenrae, An. kleini, An. pullus, and An. sinensis were determined from weekly trap collections at Camp Humphreys (CH), Ganghwa Island (GH), and Warrior Base (WB), Republic of Korea (ROK) during Jun-Oct, 2009. Wing length was greatest at the beginning and end of the study period. Wing length of NPs tended to be less than that of Ps before the period of maximum greening (Jul-Aug) but greater thereafter.
Malaria remains a major public health concern in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and its control is affected by recurrent conflicts. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) initiated several studies to better understand the unprecedented incidence of malaria to effectively target and implement interventions in emergency settings. The current study evaluated the main vector species involved in malaria transmission and their resistance to insecticides, with the aim to propose the most effective tools and strategies for control of local malaria vectors.
Host preference is a critical determinant of human exposure to vector-borne infections and the impact of vector control interventions. Widespread use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) across sub-Saharan Africa, which protect humans against mosquitoes, may select for altered host preference traits of malaria vectors over the long term. Here, the host preferences of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) were experimentally assessed in the field, using direct host-preference assays in two distinct ecological settings in Tanzania.
Anopheles subpictus and Anopheles sundaicus are closely related species, each comprising several sibling species. Ambiguities exist in the classification of these two nominal species and the specific status of members of these species complexes. Identifying fixed molecular forms and mapping their spatial distribution will help in resolving the taxonomic ambiguities and understanding their relative epidemiological significance.