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anopheles

Molecular characterization of RNase III protein of Asaia sp. for developing a robust RNAi-based paratransgensis tool to affect the sexual life-cycle of Plasmodium or Anopheles fitness

February 11, 2020 - 15:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Majid Asgari, Mahdokht Ilbeigikhamsehnejad, Elham Rismani, Navid Dinparast Djadid, Abbasali Raz
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020; 13:42

According to scientific recommendations, paratransgenesis is one of the solutions for improving the effectiveness of the Global Malaria Eradication Programme. In paratransgenesis, symbiont microorganisms are used for distorting or blocking the parasite life-cycle, affecting the fitness and longevity of vectors or reducing the vectorial competence. It has been revealed recently that bacteria could be used as potent tools for double stranded RNA production and delivery to insects. Moreover, findings showed that RNase III mutant bacteria are more competent for this aim. Asaia spp. have been introduced as potent paratransgenesis candidates for combating malaria and, based on their specific features for this goal, could be considered as effective dsRNA production and delivery tools to Anopheles spp. Therefore, we decided to characterize the rnc gene and its related protein to provide the basic required information for creating an RNase III mutant Asaia bacterium.

IgG antibody response against Anopheles salivary gland proteins in asymptomatic Plasmodium infections in Narino, Colombia

January 27, 2020 - 13:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jehidys Montiel, Luisa F. Carbal, Alberto Tobón-Castaño, Gissella M. Vásquez, Michael L. Fisher and Berlin Londono-Rentería
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:42, 23 January 2020

The humoral immune response against Anopheles salivary glands proteins in the vertebrate host can reflect the intensity of exposure to Anopheles bites and the risk of Plasmodium infection. In Colombia, the identification of exposure biomarkers is necessary due to the several Anopheles species circulating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk of malaria infection by measuring antibody responses against salivary glands extracts from Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus and Anopheles (Nys.) darlingi and also against the gSG6-P1 peptide of Anopheles gambiae in people residing in a malaria endemic area in the Colombian Pacific coast.

Gene copy number and function of the APL1 immune factor changed during Anopheles evolution

January 15, 2020 - 14:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mitri C, Bischoff E, Eiglmeier K, Holm I, Dieme C, Brito-Fravallo E, Raz A, Zakeri S, Nejad MIK, Djadid ND, Vernick KD, Riehle MM
Reference: 
Parasites Vectors 13, 18 (2020)

The recent reference genome assembly and annotation of the Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi detected only one gene encoding the leucine-rich repeat immune factor APL1, while in the Anopheles gambiae and sibling Anopheles coluzzii, APL1 factors are encoded by a family of three paralogs. The phylogeny and biological function of the unique APL1 gene in An. stephensi have not yet been specifically examined.

Not Open Access | Field Efficacy of VectoMax FG and VectoLex CG Biological Larvicides for Malaria Vector Control in Northwestern Brazil

November 30, 2019 - 15:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Fontoura PS, da Costa AS, Ribeiro FS, Ferreira MS, Castro MC, Ferreira MU
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2019 Nov 21. pii: tjz220

Despite historical and contemporary evidence of its effectiveness, larval source management with insecticides remains little used by most malaria control programs worldwide. Here we show that environmentally safe biological larvicides under field conditions can significantly reduce anopheline larval density in fish farming ponds that have became major larval habitats across the Amazon Basin.

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NOT Open Access | Functional analysis of the three major PGRPLC isoforms in the midgut of the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii

November 26, 2019 - 13:30 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rodgers FH, Cai JA, Pitaluga AN, Mengin-Lecreulx D, Gendrin M, Christophides GK
Reference: 
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 21 November 2019, 103288

Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) constitute the primary means of bacterial recognition in insects. Recent work in the model organism Drosophila has revealed the mechanisms by which the complement of PGRPs refine the sensitivity of different tissues to bacterial elicitors, permitting the persistence of commensal bacteria in the gut whilst maintaining vigilance against bacterial infection.

The male mosquito contribution towards malaria transmission: Mating influences the Anopheles female midgut transcriptome and increases female susceptibility to human malaria parasites

November 18, 2019 - 16:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Farah Aida Dahalan, Thomas S. Churcher, Nikolai Windbichler, Mara K. N. Lawniczak
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog 15(11): e1008063

Mating causes dramatic changes in female physiology, behaviour, and immunity in many insects, inducing oogenesis, oviposition, and refractoriness to further mating. Females from the Anopheles gambiae species complex typically mate only once in their lifetime during which they receive sperm and seminal fluid proteins as well as a mating plug that contains the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone.

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Evaluating synthetic odours and trap designs for monitoring Anopheles farauti in Queensland, Australia

September 10, 2019 - 15:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bram van de Straat, Alexandra Hiscox, Willem Takken and Thomas R. Burkot
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:299, 2 September 2019

Monitoring of malaria vectors is important for designing and maintaining effective control interventions as changes in vector-feeding habits can threaten the efficacy of interventions. At present, human landing catches remain the most common method for monitoring malaria vectors of the Anopheles punctulatus complex, including the Anopheles farauti group. The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of different lures and fan-powered traps, including an odour blend that has been demonstrated to be attractive to African anophelines, in Queensland, Australia.

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Semi-field evaluation of the cumulative effects of a “Lethal House Lure” on malaria mosquito mortality

September 10, 2019 - 15:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Antoine M. G. Barreaux, Welbeck A. Oumbouke, Innocent Zran Tia, N’guessan Brou, Alphonsine A. Koffi, Raphaël N’guessan and Matthew B. Thomas
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:298, 30 August 2019

There is growing interest in the potential to modify houses to target mosquitoes with insecticides or repellents as they search for human hosts. One version of this ‘Lethal House Lure’ approach is the In2Care® EaveTube, which consists of a section of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe fitted into a closed eave, with an insert comprising electrostatic netting treated with insecticide powder placed inside the tube. Preliminary evidence suggests that when combined with screening of doors and windows, there is a reduction in entry of mosquitoes and an increase in mortality. However, the rate of overnight mortality remains unclear. The current study used a field enclosure built around experimental huts to investigate the mortality of cohorts of mosquitoes over multiple nights.

Knowledge engagement in gene drive research for malaria control

April 30, 2019 - 15:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sarah Hartley, Delphine Thizy, Katie Ledingham, Mamadou Coulibaly, Abdoulaye Diabaté, Bakara Dicko, Samba Diop, Jonathan Kayondo, Annet Namukwaya, Barry Nourou, Léa Paré Toé
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(4): e0007233

Gene drive mosquitoes are a novel approach to vector control being developed to help tackle malaria. A gene drive increases the frequency of a desired gene and its phenotypic effect into a mosquito population through reproduction in relatively few generations [1]. Combining gene drive with the precision of gene editing, scientists are able to modify the Anopheles mosquito genome and push modifications through natural vector populations. 

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Medical Condition: 

Cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (CelTOS) formulated with potent TLR adjuvants induces high-affinity antibodies that inhibit Plasmodium falciparum infection in Anopheles stephensi

April 29, 2019 - 13:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sakineh Pirahmadi, Sedigheh Zakeri, Akram A. Mehrizi, Navid D. Djadid, Abbas-Ali Raz, Jafar J. Sani, Ronak Abbasi and Zahra Ghorbanzadeh
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:146, 24 April 2019

Plasmodium falciparum parasite is the most deadly species of human malaria, and the development of an effective vaccine that prevents P. falciparum infection and transmission is a key target for malarial elimination and eradication programmes. P. falciparum cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (PfCelTOS) is an advanced vaccine candidate. A comparative study was performed to characterize the immune responses in BALB/c mouse immunized with Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant PfCelTOS (rPfCelTOS) in toll-like receptor (TLR)-based adjuvants, CpG and Poly I:C alone or in combination (CpG + Poly I:C), followed by the assessment of transmission-reducing activity (TRA) of anti-rPfCelTOS antibodies obtained from different vaccine groups in Anopheles stephensi.

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