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insecticide resistance

The making of a PNAS paper...here's our story

September 3, 2015 - 20:35 -- Bart G.J. Knols

Once a scientific paper is published online and you can download a pdf of it, this addictive and magnificent feeling gets on to you. This is the fruit of all the hard work: first to get the funding to undertake the research, then the hard work to actually perform all the research, then the hard work to write up the manuscript, then the submission, the reviews, the rebuttal, and eventually acceptance followed by proof reading and then publication. The route from thinking up research to publishing about it is long, tedious, and really hard work. But why don't we ever talk about this route? Why do we publish our papers but don't tell our peers more about how we got there? The fun parts, the sweat and tears, or even the fights? This week we published an article in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (PNAS; attached below). And here's the story you don't know when you read the paper...

Insecticide resistance and behavioural adaptation as a response to long-lasting insecticidal net deployment in malaria vectors in the Cascades region of Burkina Faso

September 7, 2021 - 15:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sanou A, Nelli L, Guelbéogo WM, Cissé F, Tapsoba M, Ouédraogo P, Sagnon N, Ranson H, Matthiopoulos J, Ferguson HM
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Sep 2;11(1):17569

The decline in malaria across Africa has been largely attributed to vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, this intervention has prompted widespread insecticide resistance (IR) and been associated with changes in mosquito behaviour that reduce their contact with LLINs. The relative importance and rate at which IR and behavioural adaptations emerge are poorly understood. We conducted surveillance of mosquito behaviour and IR at 12 sites in Burkina Faso to assess the magnitude and temporal dynamics of insecticide, biting and resting behaviours in vectors in the 2-year period following mass LLIN distribution. Insecticide resistance was present in all vector populations and increased rapidly over the study period. In contrast, no longitudinal shifts in LLIN-avoidance behaviours (earlier or outdoor biting and resting) were detected.

Threats to the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bednets for malaria control: thinking beyond insecticide resistance

September 1, 2021 - 17:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lindsay SW, Thomas MB, Kleinschmidt I
Reference: 
Lancet Glob Health. 2021 Sep;9(9):e1325-e1331

From 2004 to 2019, insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) have been the most effective tool for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, however, the decline in malaria cases and deaths has stalled. Some suggest that this inertia is due to increasing resistance in malaria vectors to the pyrethroid insecticides used for treating ITNs.

High efficacy of microbial larvicides for malaria vectors control in the city of Yaounde Cameroon following a cluster randomized trial

August 25, 2021 - 17:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Antonio-Nkondjio C, Doumbe-Belisse P, Wondji CS, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 24;11(1):17101

The rapid expansion of insecticide resistance and outdoor malaria transmission are affecting the efficacy of current malaria control measures. In urban settings, where malaria transmission is focal and breeding habitats are few, fixed and findable, the addition of anti-larval control measures could be efficient for malaria vector control. But field evidences for this approach remains scarce.

NOT Open Access | Analysis of the insecticide resistance mechanism in Anopheles culicifacies sensu lato from a malaria-endemic state in India

August 25, 2021 - 15:51 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kareemi TI, Mishra AK, Chand SK, Nirankar JK, Vishwakarma AK, Tiwari A, Bharti PK
Reference: 
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 23:trab110

Understanding the dynamics and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is crucial for vector control activities. The present study investigates the level of insecticide resistance in Anopheles culicifacies and explores the role of two main mechanisms in conferring resistance target site insensitivity and metabolic resistance.

Prediction of species composition ratios in pooled specimens of the Anopheles Hyrcanus group using quantitative sequencing

August 10, 2021 - 18:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Do Eun Lee, Heung-Chul Kim, Sung-Tae Chong, Terry A. Klein, Ju Hyeon Kim and Si Hyeock Lee
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:338, 6 August 2021

Plasmodium vivax is transmitted by members of the Anopheles Hyrcanus Group that includes six species in the Republic of Korea: Anopheles sinensis sensu stricto (s.s.), Anopheles pullus, Anopheles kleini, Anopheles belenrae, Anopheles lesteri, and Anopheles sineroides. Individual Anopheles species within the Hyrcanus Group demonstrate differences in their geographical distributions, vector competence and insecticide resistance, making it crucial for accurate species identification. Conventional species identification conducted using individual genotyping (or barcoding) based on species-specific molecular markers requires extensive time commitment and financial resources.

NOT Open Access | Insecticide resistance profiles in malaria vector populations from Sud-Kivu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

August 3, 2021 - 17:27 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
N'Do S, Bandibabone JB, Soma DD, Musaka BZ, Prudhomme J, Habamungu CC, Namountougou M, Sangaré I, Kientega M, Kaboré DAP, Bayili K, Yerbanga RS, Diabate A, Dabire RK, Ouedraogo JB, Belem AMG, Boëte C, Guardiola-Claramonte M, Chimanuka B
Reference: 
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 29:trab116

Insecticide resistance has become a widespread problem causing a decline in the effectiveness of vector control tools in sub-Saharan Africa. In this situation, ongoing monitoring of vector susceptibility to insecticides is encouraged by the WHO to guide national malaria control programmes. Our study was conducted from April to November 2018 in Tchonka (Sud-Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo) and reported primary data on the resistance status of Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae.

Cuticular hydrocarbons are associated with mating success and insecticide resistance in malaria vectors

July 28, 2021 - 12:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Adams KL, Sawadogo SP, Catteruccia F, et al.
Reference: 
Commun Biol. 2021 Jul 26;4(1):911

Anopheles coluzzii females, important malaria vectors in Africa, mate only once in their lifetime. Mating occurs in aerial swarms with a high male-to-female ratio, where traits underlying male mating success are largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) influence mating success in natural mating swarms in Burkina Faso.

Threats to the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bednets for malaria control: thinking beyond insecticide resistance

July 14, 2021 - 10:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Steve W Lindsay, Matthew B Thomas, Immo Kleinschmidt
Reference: 
Lancet Glob Health 2021, June 30, 2021

From 2004 to 2019, insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) have been the most effective tool for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, however, the decline in malaria cases and deaths has stalled. Some suggest that this inertia is due to increasing resistance in malaria vectors to the pyrethroid insecticides used for treating ITNs.

Insecticide resistance status of Anopheles arabiensis in irrigated and non-irrigated areas in western Kenya

June 29, 2021 - 14:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Orondo PW, Nyanjom SG, Yan G, et al.
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jun 26;14(1):335

Malaria control in Kenya is based on case management and vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). However, the development of insecticide resistance compromises the effectiveness of insecticide-based vector control programs. The use of pesticides for agricultural purposes has been implicated as one of the sources driving the selection of resistance. The current study was undertaken to assess the status and mechanism of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in irrigated and non-irrigated areas with varying agrochemical use in western Kenya.

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