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insecticide resistance

The making of a PNAS paper...here's our story

September 3, 2015 - 20:35 -- Bart G.J. Knols

Once a scientific paper is published online and you can download a pdf of it, this addictive and magnificent feeling gets on to you. This is the fruit of all the hard work: first to get the funding to undertake the research, then the hard work to actually perform all the research, then the hard work to write up the manuscript, then the submission, the reviews, the rebuttal, and eventually acceptance followed by proof reading and then publication. The route from thinking up research to publishing about it is long, tedious, and really hard work. But why don't we ever talk about this route? Why do we publish our papers but don't tell our peers more about how we got there? The fun parts, the sweat and tears, or even the fights? This week we published an article in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (PNAS; attached below). And here's the story you don't know when you read the paper...

Design and methods for a quasi-experimental pilot study to evaluate the impact of dual active ingredient insecticide-treated nets on malaria burden in five regions in sub-Saharan Africa

January 22, 2022 - 21:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Adama Gansané, Baltazar Candrinho, Molly Robertson, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2022 21:19, 10 January 2022

Vector control tools have contributed significantly to a reduction in malaria burden since 2000, primarily through insecticidal-treated bed nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying. In the face of increasing insecticide resistance in key malaria vector species, global progress in malaria control has stalled. Innovative tools, such as dual active ingredient (dual-AI) ITNs that are effective at killing insecticide-resistant mosquitoes have recently been introduced. However, large-scale uptake has been slow for several reasons, including higher costs and limited evidence on their incremental effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. The present report describes the design of several observational studies aimed to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of dual-AI ITNs, compared to standard pyrethroid-only ITNs, at reducing malaria transmission across a variety of transmission settings.

Genetic markers associated with insecticide resistance and resting behaviour in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes in selected sites in Kenya

December 28, 2021 - 21:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sharon Mwagira-Maina, Steven Runo, Lucy Wachira, Stanley Kitur, Sarah Nyasende, Brigid Kemei, Eric Ochomo, Damaris Matoke-Muhia, Charles Mbogo and Luna Kamau
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:461, 13 December 2021

Molecular diagnostic tools have been incorporated in insecticide resistance monitoring programmes to identify underlying genetic basis of resistance and develop early warning systems of vector control failure. Identifying genetic markers of insecticide resistance is crucial in enhancing the ability to mitigate potential effects of resistance. The knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation associated with resistance to DDT and pyrethroids, the acetylcholinesterase-1 (ace-1R) mutation associated with resistance to organophosphates and carbamates and 2La chromosomal inversion associated with indoor resting behaviour, were investigated in the present study.

Risk factors associated with house entry of malaria vectors in an area of Burkina Faso with high, persistent malaria transmission and high insecticide resistance

October 23, 2021 - 18:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jean Baptiste Yaro, Alfred B. Tiono, Anne L. Wilson, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:397, 10 October 2021

In rural Burkina Faso, the primary malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) primarily feeds indoors at night. Identification of factors which influence mosquito house entry could lead to development of novel malaria vector control interventions. A study was therefore carried out to identify risk factors associated with house entry of An. gambiae s.l. in south-west Burkina Faso, an area of high insecticide resistance.

Not Open Access | Knockdown times in a simple assay determination of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors

September 23, 2021 - 07:53 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Charlwood JD, Kampango A
Reference: 
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 16:trab140

Determining the insecticide resistance status of malaria vectors, particularly to insecticides used on mosquito nets, is important but is limited to a relatively small number of locations. We describe a simple assay that enables this information to be obtained over a much wider area.

Insecticide resistance and behavioural adaptation as a response to long-lasting insecticidal net deployment in malaria vectors in the Cascades region of Burkina Faso

September 7, 2021 - 15:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sanou A, Nelli L, Guelbéogo WM, Cissé F, Tapsoba M, Ouédraogo P, Sagnon N, Ranson H, Matthiopoulos J, Ferguson HM
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Sep 2;11(1):17569

The decline in malaria across Africa has been largely attributed to vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, this intervention has prompted widespread insecticide resistance (IR) and been associated with changes in mosquito behaviour that reduce their contact with LLINs. The relative importance and rate at which IR and behavioural adaptations emerge are poorly understood. We conducted surveillance of mosquito behaviour and IR at 12 sites in Burkina Faso to assess the magnitude and temporal dynamics of insecticide, biting and resting behaviours in vectors in the 2-year period following mass LLIN distribution. Insecticide resistance was present in all vector populations and increased rapidly over the study period. In contrast, no longitudinal shifts in LLIN-avoidance behaviours (earlier or outdoor biting and resting) were detected.

Threats to the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bednets for malaria control: thinking beyond insecticide resistance

September 1, 2021 - 17:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lindsay SW, Thomas MB, Kleinschmidt I
Reference: 
Lancet Glob Health. 2021 Sep;9(9):e1325-e1331

From 2004 to 2019, insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) have been the most effective tool for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, however, the decline in malaria cases and deaths has stalled. Some suggest that this inertia is due to increasing resistance in malaria vectors to the pyrethroid insecticides used for treating ITNs.

High efficacy of microbial larvicides for malaria vectors control in the city of Yaounde Cameroon following a cluster randomized trial

August 25, 2021 - 17:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Antonio-Nkondjio C, Doumbe-Belisse P, Wondji CS, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 24;11(1):17101

The rapid expansion of insecticide resistance and outdoor malaria transmission are affecting the efficacy of current malaria control measures. In urban settings, where malaria transmission is focal and breeding habitats are few, fixed and findable, the addition of anti-larval control measures could be efficient for malaria vector control. But field evidences for this approach remains scarce.

NOT Open Access | Analysis of the insecticide resistance mechanism in Anopheles culicifacies sensu lato from a malaria-endemic state in India

August 25, 2021 - 15:51 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kareemi TI, Mishra AK, Chand SK, Nirankar JK, Vishwakarma AK, Tiwari A, Bharti PK
Reference: 
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 23:trab110

Understanding the dynamics and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is crucial for vector control activities. The present study investigates the level of insecticide resistance in Anopheles culicifacies and explores the role of two main mechanisms in conferring resistance target site insensitivity and metabolic resistance.

Prediction of species composition ratios in pooled specimens of the Anopheles Hyrcanus group using quantitative sequencing

August 10, 2021 - 18:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Do Eun Lee, Heung-Chul Kim, Sung-Tae Chong, Terry A. Klein, Ju Hyeon Kim and Si Hyeock Lee
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:338, 6 August 2021

Plasmodium vivax is transmitted by members of the Anopheles Hyrcanus Group that includes six species in the Republic of Korea: Anopheles sinensis sensu stricto (s.s.), Anopheles pullus, Anopheles kleini, Anopheles belenrae, Anopheles lesteri, and Anopheles sineroides. Individual Anopheles species within the Hyrcanus Group demonstrate differences in their geographical distributions, vector competence and insecticide resistance, making it crucial for accurate species identification. Conventional species identification conducted using individual genotyping (or barcoding) based on species-specific molecular markers requires extensive time commitment and financial resources.

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