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insecticide resistance

The making of a PNAS paper...here's our story

September 3, 2015 - 20:35 -- Bart G.J. Knols

Once a scientific paper is published online and you can download a pdf of it, this addictive and magnificent feeling gets on to you. This is the fruit of all the hard work: first to get the funding to undertake the research, then the hard work to actually perform all the research, then the hard work to write up the manuscript, then the submission, the reviews, the rebuttal, and eventually acceptance followed by proof reading and then publication. The route from thinking up research to publishing about it is long, tedious, and really hard work. But why don't we ever talk about this route? Why do we publish our papers but don't tell our peers more about how we got there? The fun parts, the sweat and tears, or even the fights? This week we published an article in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (PNAS; attached below). And here's the story you don't know when you read the paper...

Insecticide resistance exerts significant fitness costs in immature stages of Anopheles gambiae in western Kenya

June 16, 2021 - 12:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joyce K. Osoro, Maxwell G. Machani, Eric Ochomo, Christine Wanjala, Elizabeth Omukunda, Stephen Munga, Andrew K. Githeko, Guiyun Yan and Yaw A. Afrane
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:259, 9 June 2021

Despite increasing documentation of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors against public health insecticides in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a paucity of information on the potential fitness costs of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors, which is important in improving the current resistant management strategies. This study aimed to assess the fitness cost effects of insecticide resistance on the development and survival of immature Anopheles gambiae from western Kenya.

Automated phenotyping of mosquito larvae enables high-throughput screening for novel larvicides and offers potential for smartphone-based detection of larval insecticide resistance

June 8, 2021 - 11:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Buckingham SD, Partridge FA, Poulton BC, Miller BS, McKendry RA, Lycett GJ, Sattelle DB
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Jun 3;15(6):e0008639

Pyrethroid-impregnated nets have contributed significantly to halving the burden of malaria but resistance threatens their future efficacy and the pipeline of new insecticides is short. Here we report that an invertebrate automated phenotyping platform (INVAPP), combined with the algorithm Paragon, provides a robust system for measuring larval motility in Anopheles gambiae (and An. coluzzi) as well as Aedes aegypti with the capacity for high-throughput screening for new larvicides.

Genetic variation at the Cyp6m2 putative insecticide resistance locus in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii

May 26, 2021 - 09:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Martin G. Wagah, Petra Korlević, Christopher Clarkson, Alistair Miles, Mara K. N. Lawniczak and Alex Makunin
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:234, 25 May 2021

The emergence of insecticide resistance is a major threat to malaria control programmes in Africa, with many different factors contributing to insecticide resistance in its vectors, Anopheles mosquitoes. CYP6M2 has previously been recognized as an important candidate in cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification in Anopheles. As it has been implicated in resistance against pyrethroids, organochlorines and carbamates, its broad metabolic activity makes it a potential agent in insecticide cross-resistance. Currently, allelic variation within the Cyp6m2 gene remains unknown.

Optimized CRISPR tools and site-directed transgenesis towards gene drive development in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes

May 25, 2021 - 14:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Feng X, López Del Amo V, Mameli E, Lee M, Bishop AL, Perrimon N, Gantz VM
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2021 May 20;12(1):2960

Culex mosquitoes are a global vector for multiple human and animal diseases, including West Nile virus, lymphatic filariasis, and avian malaria, posing a constant threat to public health, livestock, companion animals, and endangered birds. While rising insecticide resistance has threatened the control of Culex mosquitoes, advances in CRISPR genome-editing tools have fostered the development of alternative genetic strategies such as gene drive systems to fight disease vectors.

Transcriptomic analysis reveals pronounced changes in gene expression due to sub-lethal pyrethroid exposure and ageing in insecticide resistance Anopheles coluzzii

May 12, 2021 - 09:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ingham VA, Brown F, Ranson H
Reference: 
BMC Genomics. 2021 May 10;22(1):337

Malaria control is heavily reliant on the use of insecticides that target and kill the adult female Anopheline vector. The intensive use of insecticides of the pyrethroid class has led to widespread resistance in mosquito populations. The intensity of pyrethroid resistance in some settings in Africa means mosquitoes can contact bednets treated with this insecticide class multiple times with minimal mortality effects. Furthermore, both ageing and diel cycle have been shown to have large impacts on the resistance phenotype. Together, these traits may affect other aspects of vector biology controlling the vectorial capacity or fitness of the mosquito.

Insecticide resistance status in Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) in coastal Kenya

April 22, 2021 - 08:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Munywoki DN, Kokwaro ED, Mwangangi JM, Muturi EJ, Mbogo CM
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Apr 20;14(1):207

The rapid and widespread evolution of insecticide resistance has emerged as one of the major challenges facing malaria control programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the insecticide resistance status of mosquito populations and the underlying mechanisms of insecticide resistance can inform the development of effective and site-specific strategies for resistance prevention and management. The aim of this study was to investigate the insecticide resistance status of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes from coastal Kenya.

Advances and opportunities in malaria population genomics

April 14, 2021 - 08:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Neafsey DE, Taylor AR, MacInnis BL
Reference: 
Nat Rev Genet. 2021 Apr 8:1-16

Almost 20 years have passed since the first reference genome assemblies were published for Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria parasite, and Anopheles gambiae, the most important mosquito vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Reference genomes now exist for all human malaria parasites and nearly half of the ~40 important vectors around the world.

A survey of insecticide resistance-conferring mutations in multiple targets in Anopheles sinensis populations across Sichuan, China

March 23, 2021 - 14:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Qian W, Liu N, Yang Y, Liu J, He J, Chen Z, Li M, Qiu X
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Mar 20;14(1):169

Sichuan province is located in the southwest of China, and was previously a malaria-endemic region. Although no indigenous malaria case has been reported since 2011, the number of imported cases is on the rise. Insecticide-based vector control has played a central role in the prevention of malaria epidemics. However, the efficacy of this strategy is gravely challenged by the development of insecticide resistance. Regular monitoring of insecticide resistance is essential to inform evidence-based vector control. Unfortunately, almost no information is currently available on the status of insecticide resistance and associated mechanisms in Anopheles sinensis, the dominant malaria vector in Sichuan. In this study, efforts were invested in detecting the presence and frequency of insecticide resistance-associated mutations in three genes that encode target proteins of several classes of commonly used insecticides.

NOT Open Access | Potentiation Effects of Ficus sycomorus Active Fraction Against Permethrin-Resistant Field-Population of Anopheles coluzzii (Diptera: Culicidae)

March 9, 2021 - 15:39 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Anosike CA, Babandi A, Ezeanyika LUS
Reference: 
Neotrop Entomol (2021)


Insecticide resistance in mosquitoes is increasing amidst growing cases of global malaria, leading to high fatality in mostly Africa. To overcome the resistance as well as environmental effects of the synthetic insecticides, preliminary insecticidal and botanical potentiating effects of sub-lethal concentration (LC25) Ficus sycomorus active fraction (AFFS) and its synergistic potential with standard insecticide permethrin were evaluated against malarial vector Anopheles coluzzii (Coetzee & Wilkerson) populations. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) inhibitory activity of the AFFS was also investigated compared to standard GST inhibitor, diethyl meleate (DEM).

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