Once a scientific paper is published online and you can download a pdf of it, this addictive and magnificent feeling gets on to you. This is the fruit of all the hard work: first to get the funding to undertake the research, then the hard work to actually perform all the research, then the hard work to write up the manuscript, then the submission, the reviews, the rebuttal, and eventually acceptance followed by proof reading and then publication. The route from thinking up research to publishing about it is long, tedious, and really hard work. But why don't we ever talk about this route? Why do we publish our papers but don't tell our peers more about how we got there? The fun parts, the sweat and tears, or even the fights? This week we published an article in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (PNAS; attached below). And here's the story you don't know when you read the paper...
Bubaque is the most populous island of the Bijagos archipelago, a group of malaria-endemic islands situated off the coast of Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Malaria vector control on Bubaque relies almost exclusively on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, there is little information on local vector bionomics and insecticide resistance.
Development of resistance among the vectors to different insecticides poses a potential threat to vector control programme. Regular monitoring of susceptibility status of vector species to commonly used insecticides is recommended for planning appropriate vector control measures. In this communication, we have determined the phenotypic resistance of Anopheles culicifacies s.l., the major malaria vector against commonly used various insecticides in ten highly malaria endemic districts of Odisha State in east-central India.
Resistance in Anopheles gambiae to members of all 4 major classes (pyrethroids, carbamates, organochlorines, and organophosphates) of public health insecticides limits effective control of malaria transmission in Africa. Increase in expression of detoxifying enzymes has been associated with insecticide resistance, but their direct functional validation in An. gambiae is still lacking.
This study showed phenotypic resistance to pyrethroids and low frequency of L1014S kdr mutation in An. gambiae s.l.
The near fixation of the 296S mutation and the occurrence of the 327I and 345S mutations in addition to 296S, in all the nine tested An. sinensis populations in Guangxi, strongly indicate a risk of multiple insecticide resistance.
LLINs continue to offer individual protection against malaria infection in an area of high resistance. Insecticide resistance is not a reason to stop efforts to increase coverage of LLINs in Africa.
Malaria burdens have fallen dramatically this century, in large part because around a billion long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) have been introduced into Africa (1, 2).
One marker, Vgsc-1014S, was associated with insecticide resistance and P. falciparum infection in wild-caught mixed aged populations of A. gambiae s.s. thereby showing how resistance may directly impact transmission.