Reactive case detection (RCD) is a commonly used strategy for malaria surveillance and response in elimination settings. Many approaches to RCD assume detectable infections are clustered within and around homes of passively detected cases (index households), which has been evaluated in a number of settings with disparate results.
rapid diagnostic test (RDT)
Deaths and transmission from malaria have declined significantly in the past decade, although the progress has somewhat stalled in recent years. Accurate and timely diagnosis is essential to providing adequate treatment to malaria cases. Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) is widely used especially in Africa, where P. Falciparum accounts for 98%of estimated malaria cases. Despite its importance, reports of parasites lackingpfhrp2gene emerging across the globe are threatening the importance of this malaria diagnostic tool.
The island of Hispaniola aims to eliminate malaria by 2025; however, there are limited data to describe epidemiologic risk factors for malaria in this setting. A prospective case–control study was conducted at four health facilities in southwest Haiti, aiming to describe factors influencing the risk of current and past malaria infection. Cases were defined as individuals attending facilities with current or recent fever and positive malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT), whereas controls were those with current or recent fever and RDT negative.
Housing quality is an important risk factor for malaria infection across the spectrum of malaria endemicity in SSA, with a strength of association between housing quality and malaria similar to that observed between ITN use and malaria.
The residents of Bura irrigation scheme were more likely to be infected compared to those living in the non-irrigated area of Ijara.
G6PD deficiency with enzyme activity of ≤60 % of normal is prevalent among 12.0 % of children residing in malaria-endemic areas of Hodeidah governorate, with 2.3 % having severe G6PD deficiency.
Integration of RDTs and pre-referral rectal at artesunate community level is both feasible and acceptable.
With regard to published data, compliance to RDT appears to be generally fair in sub-Saharan Africa; compliance to negative results will need to improve to prevent mismanagement of patients and overprescribing of anti-malarial drugs.
With the introduction of the iCCM intervention at drug shops in Eastern Uganda, it was possible to achieve high adherence to the treatment protocols, which is likely compatible with increased quality of care.